The Herbarium of the Nature Research Centre (international index BILAS) was established in 1948. At present, the Herbarium consists of: 1) the Herbarium of Vascular Plants of Lithuania (ca. 95,000 specimens), 2) the Herbarium Generale (ca. 6,000 specimens), 3) the Herbarium of Bryophytes of Lithuania (ca. 25,000 specimens), 4) the Herbarium of Macromycetes (ca. 60,000 specimens), 5) the Herbarium of Micromycetes (ca. 12,000 specimens), 6) the Herbarium of Myxomycota (ca. 4,000 specimens), and 7) the Herbarium of Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi (ca. 10,000 specimens). The Herbarium houses collections of Prof. P. Snarskis, the most famous researcher of Lithuanian flora (ca.12,000 herbarium sheets).
The data on vascular plant collections are digitized (background database – BRAHMS software),  and researchers can use advanced microscopy and imaging documentation equipment.
Herbarium specimens are stored in climate-controlled rooms where protection against pests and mechanical effects is ensured.
The Herbarium of the Nature Research Centre provides services to State and private institutions: inserts and stores herbarium specimens, prepares and admits plant and fungal specimens, which have been used as R&D objects, for a long-term storage, provides information on the stored specimens, and pursues exchanges with herbaria from other countries.