Protein, glycoprotein and biotin-coupled protein band patterns of three Cassia species were studied. The leaves of C. fistula L., C. occidentalis L., and C. siamea Britt. showed different protein band patterns after extracting, resolving by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and staining with Coomassie brilliant blue solution. No common bands were observed among the three species. Based on glycoprotein and biotin-coupled protein detection, the 53 kDa bands were clearly seen as markers for the studied species, and 43 and 33 kDa bands appeared as those of C. fistula. The band markers appeared repeatedly without any influence from pollution stress. The leaf sampling method by submerging petioles under water for 3 days also did not show any effect on these band markers. The 53, 43, and 33 kDa glycoprotein and biotin-coupled protein bands can be used for the identification of C. fistula.
Keywords: biotin-coupled proteins, Cassia fistula, glycoprotein, taxonomic marker.
Seven Bromus L. species belonging to the section Bromus (Poaceae) were studied for meiotic characteristics including chiasma frequency and distribution as well as chromosomal association and segregation. The species studied showed the presence of 2n = 2x = 14 and 2n = 4x = 28 chromosome numbers. The chromosome number of B. rechingeri is a new report. Diploid species of B. brachystachys formed one–two quadrivalents possibly due to the occurrence of heterozygote translocations. Tetraploid species of B. lanceolatus showed diplontic behavior due to their allotetraploid nature while B. rechingeri formed quadrivalents too. Diploid and tetraploid species differed significantly in their cytogenetics, indicating their genomic difference. Almost in all the species studied laggard chromosomes and stickiness were observed, which might bring about some degree of pollen infertility. Chromatin/chromosome migration occurred in most of the species studied, leading to the formation of aneuploid cells as well as meiocytes having double the normal chromosome number which in turn might form unreduced pollen grains.
Keywords: meiosis, cytomixis, pollen, ploidy level, Bromus.
Three new species of the freshwater red algae of the genus Batrachospermum sect. Batrachospermum have been recorded in southeastern Lithuania. Batrachospermum anatinum, B. arcuatum, B. boryanum were found in small, clear water alkaline streams. They usually grow attached to submerged stones, gravel, or washed tree roots. Two of them, B. anatinum and B. arcuatum are rare, and were found in one or two streams, but B. boryanum is a common species, found in 36 % of studied streams in the southeast of Eastern Lithuania. This paper contains information on the morphometrics, distribution, and ecology of these species.
Keywords: Batrachospermum, sect. Batrachospermum, morphometry, Lithuania, streams.
The chemistry and distribution of the lichen species Lecanora rouxii (syn. Lepraria flavescens) in Poland are described in this paper. Atranorin, eugenitol, flavescin, sordidon and 4 additional secondary lichen metabolites – called provisionally ‘rouxii unknown 1-4’ – were found; 3 of them, ‘rouxii unknown 2-4’, are newly reported. All of these substances are characterised. The chemical variability of the species is described. Also, the first full description of the species is presented.
Keywords: Lecanora rouxii, Lepraria flavescens, chemistry, distribution, Poland.
Data on the diversity, distribution, and ecology of microscopic ascomycetous and anamorphic fungi of Viešvilė Strict Nature Reserve and its environs are presented in this paper. A list consisting of 24 species of ascomycetous fungi belonging to 17 genera, 80 species of hyphomycetous fungi belonging to 56 genera, and 19 species of coelomycetous fungi belonging to 10 genera has been recorded. Several recorded species are very rare, known only from a few collections worldwide and are reported here for the first time in Europe: Chloridium cf. reniforme, Helicoma dennisii, Pseudotorula cf. heterospora, and Zakatoshia hirschiopori. Comments on the host and substrate preferences, distribution patterns, and illustrations of some rare species recorded for the first time in Lithuania are given.
Keywords: Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes, Hyphomycetes, Coelomycetes, diversity, Lithuania.
Dust was gathered in storehouses for grain and other plant-origin products, mills and other processing premises; mycological investigations of the dust were performed. Microscopic fungi of 136 species ascribed to 45 genera were isolated and identified. Mitosporic fungi comprised the majority of the isolated fungi – 116 species (85.3 % of all isolated species). The concentration of micromycetes in dust varied from 4 ? 1.4 × 103 to 153 ? 28 × 106 cfu/g; 64 % of the isolated micromycetes were potential producers of toxic secondary metabolites. Tests on the toxicity of microscopic fungi to the warm-blooded animals revealed that suspensions of mycelium and conidia of Aspergillus ochraceus A-1 did not cause an acute toxicity reaction in animals, while Penicillium variabile S-11 was toxic to the tested mice.
Keywords: storages, mills, grain, dust, micromycetes, mycotoxins.
Smooth bromegrass (Bromopsis inermis (Leyss.) Holub) plants exhibiting symptoms of general yellowing, stunting, bushiness and sterility of spikes were observed in the fields and waysides in the Vilnius region of Lithuania. The detected phytoplasma was identified and classified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR amplified 16S rDNA. A phytoplasma-characteristic fragment of 16S rDNA was amplified in nested polymerase chain reactions which were primed by phytoplasma universal primers (R16F2n/R2) and template DNA extracted from diseased plants, confirming phytoplasma infection in the symptomatic plants. The 1.2 kbp 16 rDNA product was subjected to single enzyme digestions with 10 different restriction endonucleases. RFLP analysis of amplified 16S rDNA indicated that the diseased smooth bromegrass was infected by a phytoplasma strain belonging to group 16SrI (aster yellows phytoplasma group) and subgroup 16SrI-B. The phytoplasma strain found in smooth bromegrass was named bromegrass stunt (BrS) phytoplasma.
Keywords: Bromopsis inermis, PCR, RFLP, 16S rRNA gene.
Two species of pyrenomycetes – Melanconis appendiculata (G. H. Otth) Wehm. and Prosthecium auctum (Berk. et Broome) Petrak – are reported as new in Lithuania. All specimens were collected in various locations throughout the country. Short descriptions and illustrations of the species are provided. All specimens are deposited in the Herbarium of Vilnius University (WI).
Keywords: pyrenomycetes, Melanconidaceae, Diaporthales, Lithuania.