The paper is designed to the third objective “Using Plant Diversity Sustainably” of Global Strategy of Plant Conservation. The purpose of this paper is to plan ongoing environmental politics to meeting its targets. Far more species of medicinal plants are harvested from the natural world than any other product. Cultivation of medicinal plants is not the most beneficial production system. An original conception for the development of semi-cultural plantations of medicinal and aromatic plants in natural environment was proposed by E. Šimkūnaitė in 1960s. Sustainable use for agricultural systems is usually defined quite differently than for wild plants. Being directly connected with the harvesters, the companies purchasing wild plants from collectors are in a good position to influence the plants’ harvest. Further steps promoting sustainable use of wild-collected medicinal plants are discussed.
Keywords: plant diversity, sustainable use, medicinal plant, nature management, human well-being, Lithuania.
The flowering sequence duration, fruit production and percentage of fruit-set per capitulum of the three Emilia Cass species in Nigeria were investigated. There were similarities, differences and overlaps in the duration of the different stages of the flowering phase among the three species. Flowering of E. praetermissa, the allotetraploid hybrid of E. coccinea and E. sonchifolia, stars fasters than of its parental species. Fruit production performance was found to be associated with a number of vegetative and reproductive characteristics of Emilia plants. Fruit production and percentage of fruit-set per capitulum were highest in E. praetermissa. E. coccinea achenes had a shorter post-pollination period on the plant. Fruit set and production of Emilia species are discussed.
Keywords: Emilia, flowering phase, fruit production, capitulum, reproductive characteristics.
The new species in Lithuania Festuca pseudovina Hack. Wiesb. was found in Varėna district, Merkinė surroundings in 2004. Morphological analysis of this population and comparison of plants from natural habitats and those grown in experimental plots suggest that morphological and anatomical characteristics are species-specific. The characteristics of plants growing in natural habitats slightly differ, but the differences vary within species variation range. The plants grown in experimental plots reach species-specific maximum values. The most important characteristics according to which Festuca pseudovina can be distinguished from Festuca valesiaca are: leaf length, sclerenchyma development degree, length of lemma.
Keywords: Festuca pseudovina, population, morphology, anatomy, sclerenchyma.
Sixteen species of lichens and 5 species of lichenicolous fungi are reported as new to Lithuania: Absconditella sphagnorum, Arthonia apatetica, Bryophagus gloeocapsa, Carbonea vitellinaria, Catillaria chalybeia, Clauzadea monticola, Cyphelium tigillare, Dermatocarpon luridum, Lecania turicensis, Lecanora agardhiana, L. norvegica, L. persimilis, Lecidella carpathica, Leptogium byssinum, Placidium squamulosum, Pronectria pertusariicola, Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae, Refractohilum peltigerae, Trapelia involuta, Usnea wasmuthii, Vezdaea rheocarpa. Chaenotheca hispidula is reported to be re-found for the first time since the 1930-es. Bryophagus gloeocapsa, Lecanora agardhiana, Pronectria pertusariicola, Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae, Vezdaea rheocarpa are recorded for the first time in the Baltic states. Short characteristics of the collected specimens are given as well as notes about species ecology and distribution, especially in the Baltic region.
Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, Lithuania.
Distribution and taxonomic data on myxomycetes of the genus Clastoderma A. Blytt in Lithuania are presented. Two species are reported from the country: C. debaryanum and C. pachypus. The latter is reported for the first time from Lithuania. Morphological descriptions of the species are given and their ecological preferences are discussed; localities are mapped.
Keywords: myxomycetes, Clastoderma debaryanum, Clastoderma pachypus.
Three species of myxomycetes – Collaria rubens, Physarum rubiginosum, and Trichia verrucosa – are reported for the first time from Lithuania. Their morphological descriptions, illustrations and distribution maps are provided, world distribution data are presented.
Keywords: Collaria, Physarum, Trichia, distribution.
Notes on the occurrence of two new and critical species of straminipilous fungi in fresh waters of Lithuania are presented, and their taxonomy is discussed. Short descriptions, illustrations, and notes on species morphological variability are given, basing on detailed comparative studies of living pure cultures.
Keywords: straminipilous fungi, Achlya, fresh water, diversity, taxonomy, Lithuania.
The paper lists anamorphic fungi (Hyphomycetes and Coelomycetes) detected on Carpinus betulus L. in Lithuania. Totally 59 species belonging to 47 genera are reported; 21 species are registered for the first time in Lithuania. Ecological peculiarities of the collected species, their distribution and substrate preferences are discussed.
Keywords: anamorphic fungi, diversity, checklist, European hornbeam.
In 2002–2004 fungal contamination of dew-retted flax, laid in swaths or left standing, was investigated. Meteorological conditions in separate years were very different and flax retting lasted from 9 to 13 weeks. In dry 2002 the least amount of fungal colony forming units (cfu) per 1 gram of flax stems was found, but species diversity was the highest. The lower numbers of fungal species but high level of contamination with colony forming units (cfu/g-1) were estimated under favourable air humidity and temperature conditions (in 2004). The contamination of stand-retted flax was significantly lower and variation of fungi number was lower than on laid flax. The complexes of 7–12 dominating fungal species were found on laid and of 5–7 species – on standing flax. Most isolated species belong to the Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium and Penicillium genera. The portion of Cladosporium species – active participants of retting process – increased after 30–50 days from harvesting and reached 23–75 % on laid and 11–80 % on stand-retted flax.
Keywords: fungi, species diversity, flax, dew-retting.
Robillarda sessilis and Pseudorobillarda jaczewskii are reported as new Coelomycetes species in Lithuania. These fungi are described, illustrated, and briefly discussed.
Keywords: anamorphic fungi, Robillarda, Pseudorobillarda, host plants, distribution, Lithuania.