The paper presents bibliography of a prominent Lithuanian mycologist Dr. Jonas Mazelaitis (1907–1994) whose 100th anniversary is celebrated this year.
Keywords: mycologist, Jonas Mazelaitis, fungi, investigations, Lithuania.
Dynamics of Lactarius deterrimus functioning in Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests of 13, 18, 60 and 120 years old was studied. The most intensive fructification of L. deterrimus was detected in young stands. Comparison of fruiting dynamics of L. deterrimus and richness of species of ectomycorrhizal agaricoid fungi depending on the stand age showed a negative correlation between the number of species and abundance of fruit bodies. Ectomycorrhizae of L. deterrimus and P. abies was identified using morphoanatomical and molecular methods. Analysing the relation of above- and below-ground structures of L. deterrimus, a strong positive correlation between the abundance of fruit bodies and ectomycorrhizae depending on the forest age was determined.
Keywords: Lactarius deterrimus, fruit bodies, ectomycorrhizae, spruce forest, Lithuania.
Diversity of hypogeous fungi species was investigated in the diet of small mammals captured in various forests of Lithuania. The spores of at least 13 taxa belonging to 9 genera and 3 orders (Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota) were observed in faecal pellets of rodents (Apodemus spp., Clethrionomys glareolus) and insectivores (Sorex sp.). The spores of Elaphomyces, Glomus, and Genea have been observed most frequently. Four genera, Chamonixia, Genea, Glomus, and Pachyphloeus, are reported as new for Lithuania.
Keywords: mycophagy, spores, hypogeous fungi, rodent, insectivore, faecal pellet.
The present paper gives an account of six species of the genus Aphanomyces recorded in Lithuania. All species are briefly described and illustrated; taxonomical position and ecology of some of them are discussed. Four species of the genus, A. euteiches, A. helicoides, A. parasiticus and A. stellatus, are reported for the first time in Lithuania.
Keywords: straminipilous fungi, Aphanomyces, freshwater habitats, diversity, taxonomy, Lithuania.
45 herbarium specimens of ascomycetous fungi associated with elm were collected during field trips in July, September and October, 2005 in the deciduous forest, Pavilniai regional park (Vilnius city). 19 species of pyrenomycetes and loculoascomycetes were registered on Ulmus spp. Cosmospora purtonii, Nectria coccinea, Pseudovalsaria ferruginea and Flageoletia leptasca are recorded for the first time in Lithuania.
Keywords: Ascomycota, Ulmus, Lithuania.
Distribution of dangerous fungus Schizophyllum commune was observed on green plantings and forests in Lithuania. After intensive pruning of trees in V. Kudirka Street, Kaunas, the number of infected trees increased from 2.7 % in 1995 to 45.6 % in 2007. The fungus colonized Tilia cordata and T. platyphyllos, which grew under unfavourable conditions in parks, and Quercus rubra that was introduced in forests. Trees were colonized by the fungus in the areas where they had already suffered from unfavourable growth conditions.
Keywords: Schizophyllum commune, pathogenic fungi, plant pathology, Lithuania.
Differences in micromycete species composition and their frequency in rhizosphere depending on different growth conditions of the Bromeliaceae family plants were investigated in 1997–2005. Micromycetes of 102 species ascribed to 28 genera were isolated from the rhizosphere of these plants. Diversity of the isolated micromycetes differed depending on the growth conditions. From all investigated plant groups fungi of the Penicillium, Mortierella, Trichoderma, Acremonium and Candida genera were isolated. Pathogenic fungi of the Fusarium, Pythium and Verticillium genera functioned in the rhizosphere of plants grown under unfavourable conditions; Pythium genus species were also isolated from plants grown in greenhouse.
Keywords: growth conditions, micromycetes, detection frequency.
Two micromycete species from Trichoderma sect. Longibrachiatum: T. citrinoviride and T. longibrachiatum were detected for the first time in Lithuania. Distribution of these species, their colonial peculiarities on various media, at different temperatures, pH influence on growth and toxicity of extracellular metabolites are presented in this study. Microscopic characteristics of T. citrinoviride and T. longibrachiatum are described and illustrations are presented.
Keywords: Trichoderma citrinoviride, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, distribution, temperature, pH, toxicity, Lithuania.
Research on the occurrence of fungal diseases in semi-leafless pea (Pisum sativum L.) crops was conducted in the Central Lithuania Lowland on typical cambisols. The data generated during the period of 2006–2007 suggest that roots and stem base of semi-leafless pea varieties were severely affected by rots; index of disease severity gradually increased with plant development and maturing. The most prevalent causal agents were Phoma pinodella (L. K. Jones) Morgan-Jones et K. B. Burch (syn. Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella (L. K. Jones) Boerema) and Fusarium spp., less frequent were Trichoderma spp., Botrytis spp., Mucor spp., Alternaria spp., Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk. et Broome) Ferraris and Rizoctonia spp. In 2006 plant stems and leaves were also affected by powdery mildew (Erysiphe pisi DC. var. pisi) and Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta spp.), in 2007 – by downy mildew (Peronospora viciae f. sp. pisi Boerema et Verh.) and Ascochyta blight (Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. et A. Bloxam) Verstergr. (anamorph Ascochyta pinodes L. K. Jones), Ascochyta pisi Lib., Phoma pinodella (L. K. Jones) Morgan-Jones et K. B. Burch). The diversity of pathogenic fungi in different semi-leafless pea varieties was similar.
Keywords: semi-leafless peas, pathogenic fungi, Lithuania.
Distribution of yeasts in the phyllosphere of different plants on the territory of Verkiai Regional Park (Vilnius, Lithuania) and their biological peculiarities were studied. Forty two plant species of 33 families were investigated. Ninety five yeast strains belonging to 8 species and 7 genera were isolated from 84 samples of plant leaves. In the phyllosphere of herbaceous plants yeast species of ascomycetous affinity: Torulaspora delbrueckii, Candida sake, Debaryomyces hansenii var. hansenii, Pichia membanifaciens, Pichia anomala dominated (83.3 %). Ascomycetous (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Debaryomyces hansenii var. hansenii) and basidiomycetous yeasts (Trichosporon pullulans, Sporobolomyces roseus, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were isolated rather frequently from leaves of trees, shrubs and semishrubs. The yeasts isolated from phyllosphere demonstrated ability to ferment some hexoses and disaccharides. They also assimilated a broad spectrum of carbohydrate and nitrogen sources. Yeasts demonstrated proteolytic activity and were able to synthesize extracellular starch compounds and organic acids. Lipase activity was not characteristic of any of the tested yeasts.
Keywords: ascomycetous yeasts, basidiomycetous yeasts, leaf surfaces.
Since synthetic mordants are forbidden on ecological farms, alternative means to pickle grain were searched for. Preliminary testing of biological preparation “Biokal” was carried out. During the research tests, winter wheat grain were pickled with synthetic mordant, biological preparations “Biokal 1” and “Biokal 2”. The greatest effect on prevailing species of fungi was achieved by pickling the grain with “Biokal 1” and “Biokal 2” solutions in concentration of 5 l t-1. Number of micromycetes decreased significanlty under treatment with “Biokal 2” in concentration of 15 l t-1. It proved to be as efficient as synthetic mordant.
Keywords: wheat, micromycetes, pickling, “Biokal”.
Trophic relations between 19 species of fungus gnats and Russulales fungi were established: 14 fungus gnat species (belonging to 5 genera) with Lactarius, and 13 species (belonging to 7 genera) – with Russula species. The fauna of fungus gnats was established on six more common Lactarius species (Lactarius deliciosus, L. deterrimus, L. necator, L. piperatus, L. torminosus, L. vellereus). The analysis showed that the fungi of different Lactarius species are distinguished by specific complexes of fungus gnat fauna.
Keywords: fungivorous Diptera, fungal habitats, Mycetophilidae, fruit bodies, Russula, Lactarius.