Botanica Lithuanica, Volume 14, Number 2

2008 m.

Botanical Garden of Šiauliai University was established in 1997. Nowadays the Botanical Garden has 6 departments: Alpine plants, Ericaceous plants, Dendrology, Floriculture, Plant taxonomy and geography, Phenology. The purposeful establishment of the departments has begun since 2001. In 2007 there were more than 3 000 plant species in the collections. Now establishment of the department of Lithuanian flora starts. Botanical garden is an institution, where science, education and recreation can and should belong together.

Keywords: Botanical garden, research, collections, plants, species.

Chromosome numbers in somatic cells of Setaria pumila and S. italica were investigated. Setaria seeds, brought to Lithuania as imported grain contaminants, were taken for investigation. Seeds of Setaria plants were found in 18 samples from five European countries. Diploid individuals of S. italica (2n=18) from Italy and tetraploid individuals of Setaria pumila (2n=4x=36) from Byelorussia, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine were determined. Chromosome numbers of four local populations of S. pumila ir S. viridis were also investigated. In two Lithuanian populations tetraploid (2n=36) individuals of S. pumila and in two populations of S. viridis diploid (2n=18) were recorded.

Keywords: Setaria, chromosome number, polyploidy level, weeds, alien species.

Results of investigations on anatomic structure of vegetative organs (stems, leaves, rootstock, and roots) of Echinacea pallida Nutt are presented in this paper. Heterobathmia was set in all examined organs. The drapery circulation of E. pallida in the stems are stringed in the eustele; in the rootstock – siphonostele; in the roots – root siphonostele. The function of water carrying is fulfilled by solitary cellular and spiral water vessels which have oval inner cavity. Water vessels in stem amount to 21.5 %, and in rootstock – 17.3 % of xylem size. E. pallida stoma device is of anizocythic type. The stoma index in the lower epidermis is 12.2, and in upper epidermis it is 21.9. The veins of 5–6 rows in anatomozic system make separate branches of different length.

Keywords: Echinacea pallida, epidermis, stoma, water vessels, stele.

The study on ornamental planting in cemeteries was performed in 2007 in two cemeteries (Ginkūnai and K. Donelaitis) of Šiauliai town. Four types and twenty four standard layouts of grave planting were distinguished. The most popular planting layouts were identified to be longitudinal and central. Characteristic or newly emerged planting peculiarities of graves were distinguished. Further investigations can reveal whether these layouts will become well-established or will they be rejected. The use and popularity of various burial ground covers were also investigated. The ratio between plant-covered and non-planted surfaces of tombs was determined. No relationship was found between grave planting and monument material, shape and colour. Grave planting is generally based on an individual judgement of a person.

Keywords: burial grounds, planting layout, standard plant layout, burial ground surfaces, planting peculiarities, new trends.

Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaf area data were used in this study to calculate photosynthetic potential (PP) using a refined calculation method. This method is based on the use of regression analysis for the determination of variation curves from the leaf area points. The obtained optimal curve is integrated and PP is calculated in this way. The advantage of the refined method is that regression analysis allows us to determine the curve, which is generally non-linear and more precisely conforms to the variation habit, therefore its integration produces a more accurate PP value. Thus, the adequacy of curves to the law of nature and accuracy of area calculation by integrating enables a more accurate assessment of this critical indicator of productivity biology – photosynthetic potential, which makes this method likely to be applied in practice.

Keywords: photosynthetic potential, regression curves, integration method.

Research was done on the length regularities of leaves, which are determinate organs, in the Poaceae family species Lolium multiflorum, Festuca pratensis and ×Festulolium braunii. It was found that the first leaves of the shoots were shorter than those of further leaf ranks along the shoot (l1<l2; l1<<l3; l1<<l4). We think that physiologically younger leaves grow shorter in length within a determinate, little variable growth time due to the lower growth rate (v), determined by the young system’s lower uptake of resources. Having estimated variation coefficient V, it was noted that the first and second leaves of different shoots vary in length much more markedly than further leaves (V1>V2>V3>V4). We suggest that a shoot with more leaves, as physiologically older, more differentiated system accumulates resources and allocates them for regulation, which secures its higher stability, and consequently – lower variation of subsequent leaves. These leaves are just the ones that can be used in comparative studies.

Keywords: Lolium multiflorum, Festuca pratensis, Festulolium braunii, determinate growth, growth rate, total physiological age.

The aim of this study was to ascertain the pattern of distribution of Allium oleraceum L. in Lithuania. Analysis of distribution revealed that this species is concentrated in southern and eastern parts, but it is rare in the northern part of the country. A. oleraceum prefers open and warm natural or slightly anthropogenically influenced habitats. The soil of habitats is slightly acid or neutral. Herb layer of communities with A. oleraceum is comparatively sparse. These conditions usually form on floodplains of rivers and slopes of hills of the main highlands in southern, south-eastern and south-western parts of Lithuania, where communities of the Festuco-Brometea erecti and Trifolio-Geranietea sanguinei occur.

Keywords: Allium oleraceum, distribution pattern, habitat, communities, Lithuania.

The issues of the Quercetalia robori-petraeae order in Lithuania are discussed. Analysis of the available material revealed no sufficient data to confirm the presence of communities of this order in the country. Only 1 order comprising broadleaved forests – Fagetalia sylvaticae – and two alliances: Carpinion betuli and Alnion incanae are present on the territory of Lithuania.

Keywords: Lithuania, communities, Querco-Fagetea, Quercetalia robori-petraeae, associations, distribution.

Investigations of flora in protected and non-protected natural areas of South-West Lithuania were performed in 1997–2003. New localities of 20 rare and protected plant species were recorded. Conditions of habitats and plant populations were evaluated and means for their protection were proposed. Exact localities of rare and protected species were indicated.

Keywords: rare plant species, protected species, protected areas, Lithuania.

The impact of bactericides, 10 antibiotics and 3 disinfectants, upon the Pseudomonas genus bacteria isolated from different substrates (soil, polymeric materials, food products) was evaluated. 20 bacterial strains of 7 species were chosen for the investigations. Analysis of the effect produced by antibiotics revealed that antibiotic gentamicin produced a 100 % effect against all tested Pseudomonas bacteria. The effect of other antibiotics was weaker. These antibiotics had bactericidal effect upon 5–65 % of bacteria. The 3 % concentration of the detergent Sanitarinis M bactericidally affected bacteria of all strains (100 %). The impact of the tested disinfectants Taab-1 (0.2 %) and Taab-2 (0.5 %) upon the bacteria was considerably weaker.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, bactericides, disinfectant, antibiotics.