Botanica Lithuanica, Volume 8, Number 2

2002 m.

Twenty three populations of Allium oleraceum were observed in the Central and South Lithuania in 1999–2001. The species frequently occurs on sunny slopes, at field margins, and on forest edges. A. oleraceum is more frequent on dryer, slightly acid, or alkaline soils of low fertility. The communities with A. oleraceum were ascribed to four vegetation classes. The intensity of generative and vegetative propagation was investigated in 7 populations. An average seed production varied from 0.1 to 4.5 seeds and the number of bulbils varied from 18.7 to 47.2 bulbils per plant. The number of bulbils and their mass correlate directly with plant height. Because of low seed production, the vegetative reproduction by bulbils is more important for the species distribution.

Keywords: Allium oleraceum, populations, communities, vegetative reproduction, generative reproduction, density, Lithuania.

In 1999–2000 populations of Rubus plicatus Weihe et Nees and Rubus nessensis Hall were investigated in three different types of habitats with the aim to identify regularities of their morphological variation. Shoot height, number of flowers and fruits depend on several ecological conditions, illumination being the principal one causing variation of these properties. Shoot height of R. plicatus and R. nessensis depends upon their density, whereas the number of flowers and fruits – upon the quantity of axillary shoots. A strong positive correlation between the shoot height and their density was revealed for R. plicatus, while in R. nessensis these properties correlated negatively.

Keywords: Rubus plicatus, Rubus nessensis, morphological properties, shoot, flower, fruit, habitat, ecological conditions, Lithuania.

The sweet lowbush blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium, and the velvet-leaf blueberry, V. myrtilloides, are economically important wild species in eastern North America. The pendulous blossoms and flower morphology of these two ericaceous species conform to characteristics common among other flowering plants pollinated by insect sonication. Successful fruit set depends on the capture and germination of appropriate pollen tetrads on the wet-type stigmatic surface of the gynoecium. Peroxidase activity is usually indicative of stigmatic surface receptivity to pollen. Peroxidase activity is detected on the papillate surface of a limited number of stigmas from both species during the final stages of flower bud maturation prior to anthesis and at full bloom. Contrary to earlier reports, these preliminary observations suggest that stigmas from these two Vaccinium species become receptive to pollen much earlier than previously thought.

Keywords: Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium myrtilloides, stigma, receptivity, peroxidase activity.

Investigation of biochemical processes in berries of different cultivars of Vaccinium ×covilleanum was carried out in 2001. Berries of 5 cultivars were under investigation in different storage conditions. It was established that the process of anthocyanins accumulation was still going in berries picked up not entirely ripen. This process is more intensive in warm storage conditions. Respiration is more intensive in berries during storage in warm conditions at relative humidity of 99.7 % than in chill conditions at relative humidity of 73–75 %. It could be a reason for larger amount of decayed berries in warm storage conditions.

Keywords: Vaccinium ×covilleanum, storage conditions, chemical composition, cultivar, respiration, weight loss.

Investigation on macro- and microphenological development of shoots in Actinidia kolomikta was carried out in 2000–2001. The growing season of the female clone F1 lasdted for 179–191 days. The growth of shoots started at the end of March at very low sums of positive and effective temperatures: 103.3 and 15.0 °C, respectively. Very intensive growth of shoots and microphenological processes in the axilary buds (shortening of the plastochron, changes of the apex height and width) coincided with the differentiation of generative primordia in the apical meristem. The growth period of plants finished at the end of September; howewer, the development in axillary buds stopped at the end of October.

Keywords: Aktinidia kolomikta, phenophase, vegetative shoot, mixed shoot, leaf primordia, dormancy, apical meristem.

In 2000–2001 at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture investigations on the changes of ascorbic acid content during berry ripening in black currant cultivars in Lithuania were performed. Investigations covered Lithuanian cultivars ‘Joniniai’, ‘Almiai’, ‘Vakariai’, Byelorussian cultivar ‘Minaj Šmyriov’, and commercial cultivars ‘Ojebyn’, ‘Titania’, ‘Ben Alder’, ‘Ben More’, and ‘Ben Tirran’. Amounts of ascorbic acid and anthocyanins were established in berries of different maturity. During ripening high amount of ascorbic acid accumulates in reddish berries – on average 308.51 mg/100 g. Higher content of anthocyanins accumulates in overripe berries – on average 437.0 mg/100 g.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, black currant, cultivar.

Vacinium uliginosum L. in Lithuania is represented by two subspecies – subsp. microphyllum Lange Meddel. and subsp. uliginosum as well as four varieties of the type subspecies (V. uliginosum var. uliginosum, V. uliginosum var. longifrons Bornmüller, V. uliginosum var. viridifolium Lekavi?ius et Butkus, and V. uliginosum var. leucocarpum B. Fedtsch.). They differ by the leaf and berry colour, shape, and size. Moreover, two new morphotypes of the type variety have been selected for leaf shape and size (round-leaved and large-leaved) as well as five morphotypes for berry size and shape (round-berried, oblong-berried, flat-berried, cubic-berried, and small-berried). However, a taxonomic status of the new morphotypes should be verified by the further investigations under the ex situ conditions.

Keywords: Vaccinium uliginosum, variety, metameric variability.

The Subtropical Botanical Garden of Kuban’ is situated on the Russian part of the Black Sea shore (Krasnodar region, North-Western Caucasus, Russia). The list of lichens found on the territory (7.5 ha) of this Botanical Garden and its vicinity includes 88 species of 54 genera; they are found on bark of trees and shrubs, lignum of fallen trunks, stones, and concrete gutters. Thirty two species are new to the Russian Caucasus and the Precaucasian territory. The list of species with indications of substrate and locality is given.

Keywords: lichens, North-Western Caucasus, Russia, botanical gardens.

Erysiphe (Uncinula) prunastri was newly found in Lithuania on Prunus domestica. The morphology of the fungus is described and phylogenetic analysis is carried out basing on the nucleotide sequences of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region.

Keywords: Erysiphe prunastri, Lithuania, Prunus, Uncinula prunastri.

The paper deals with six ascomycete species recorded for the first time in Lithuania: Acrospermum adeanum, Euepixylon udum, Holwaya mucida, Massarina corticola, Neottiella ricciae, Trichophaea woolhopeia. Short descriptions and illustrations of the species are provided.

Keywords: ascomycetes, Lithuania.

This paper lists Hyphomycetes and Coelomycetes obtained on oak (Quercus) in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Totally 136 species are reported; 54 species are new to Lithuania. Most of the recorded Hyphomycetes species are terrestrial and aquatic saprotrophs. Coelomycetes include only terrestrial saprotrophs and biotrophs. Ecological peculiarities of collected species, their distribution, host and substrate preferences are discussed.

Keywords: Hyphomycetes, Coelomycetes, species diversity, distribution, Quercus, Lithuania.

Plants of daisy (Bellis perennis L.) exhibiting disease symptoms characteristic of phytoplasma infection were found in the Botanical Garden of Vilnius University, Lithuania. These symptoms included general yellowing and stunting of plants, proliferation of shoots, phyllody and virescence of flowers. Amplification of a phytoplasmal 16S rRNA gene sequence, in polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) containing phytoplasma universal primer pair R16F2n/R2 and template DNA extracted from diseased plants, confirmed that the plants were infected by phytoplasma. The 1.2 kbp 16S rDNA product was subjected to single enzyme digestions with 10 different restriction endonucleases: AluI, HaeIII, HpaII, HhaI, HinfI, KpnI, MseI, RsaI, Sau3AI, and TaqI. RFLP analysis revealed that the plants were infected by a phytoplasma belonging to group 16SrI (aster yellows phytoplasma group), subgroup A (I-A, tomato big bud phytoplasma subgroup).

Keywords: phytoplasma, 16S rRNA gene, PCR, RFLP.