A checklist of 335 moss species occurring in Lithuania is presented. Data on 312 species are supported by herbarium specimens deposited in BILAS and WI. Nineteen species are known according to literature data; 35 species are reported for the first time in the country; 6 moss species earlier reported as occuring in Lithuania are not included into the checklist as misidentified.
Keywords: mosses, checklist, Lithuania.
The colour variation in red bilberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) berries from North Karelia has been studied applying digital photography. Plants with ripe berries differing in colour have been collected on the Malyj Gorelyj island in the White sea. The plants have been transferred to the laboratory, where digital photographs of plant samples and of detached berries have been taken by Agfa ePhoto 1680 camera. Image analysis confirms visually observed differences in colour of berries from different plants. Colour difference between normal antocian pigmented “red” berries and non-pigmented “white” ones significantly exceeds minimal colour difference, whereas “rose” berries possessing intermediate level of pigmentation could not always be clearly distinguished from non-pigmented berries. Our data proofs the applicability of digital photography to studies on colour variations in natural populations.
Keywords: Vaccinium vitis-idaea, berries, colour variation, antocian, digital photography, image analysis.
It was established that the contents of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, calcium, manganese, and ashes in cranberry (Oxycoccus palustris Pers.) fruit growing in different habitats varied among habitats and years. The highest variation was observed in the contents of sodium. In the reed-bed habitat, the cranberries accumulated three times more sodium than on the lakeside bog. The contents of nitrogen varied less. The highest content of nitrogen was observed in berries growing on the forest edge, and the lowest content – on the lakeside bog habitat. The differences in nitrogen contents among habitats did not exceed 30 %. The contents of calcium varied slightly, differences between habitats did not exceeding 25 %. The contents of phosphorus and potassium were also similar in all habitats. The lowest content of manganese was observed in berries picked up on the lakeside bog. In other habitats its contents were higher by 1.7–2 times. The lowest content of ashes was observed in cranberries on the raised bog, while in other habitats it was higher by 20 %.
Keywords: cranberry, nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, calcium, manganese, ashes, habitat, reed-bed, lakeside bog, forest outskirts, forest, raised bog.
Investigation of spatial and temporal structure of microplankton community as well as its changes under specific abiotic conditions has been carried out in gypsum karst lakes of North Lithuania in 2000–2001. Data on abundance and species composition of predominant phytoplankton and heterotrophic protista is presented. High diversity of green algae, diatoms, golden-brown algae species, and cryptomonads is characteristic of karst lakes. In the biggest karst Lake Kirkilai, the abundance of phytoplankton varies from 0.023 × 106 to 8.0 × 106 cells/l, heterotrophic protista – from 350 to 4375 cells/l. Formation of anaerobic communities of certain cyanobacteria and heterotrophic protista species in sulphide strata is common in the investigated lakes.
Keywords: gypsum karst lakes, phytoplankton, heterotrophic protista, Lake Kirkilai, Lithuania.
The total of 104 species, 2 subspecies, and 1 variety of 37 lichen genera were found on driftwood of the Keret’ archipelago (Karelia Keretina, Russia). This lignicolous community has only 7 stenotopic and typical species (6.7 %) including Lecanora xylophila, which is very rare in Europe, and Xylographa opegraphella, new for Karelia. Other 97 species (93.3 %) are facultative, accidental, eurytopic, or with unclear ecology within the archipelago.
Keywords: lignicolous lichens, driftwood, Keret’ archipelago, Karelia Keretina, White Sea, Russia.
The paper presents a list of 42 lichen species (4 lichenicolous fungi included) collected from 700 years old English oaks growing in the Rogalinski Landscape Park in Wielkopolska Region, Poland. Particular attention is paid to the species threatened in Poland. The current lichen biota of the oldest English oaks is diverse but does not include the species characteristic of Quercus robur only.
Keywords: lichens, the oldest English oaks, Rogalin, West Poland.
The structure of epiphytic lichen groups on Larix sibirica Ledeb. was investigated in 1999–2001 in larch open woodland of the Eastern macroslope of Polar Urals. The composition of the lichen groups, frequency and coverage of species, as well as dominant species were determined.
Keywords: epiphytic lichens, species frequency, species participation, dominant species, Polar Urals.
It was ascertained that endo-1.4-b-glucanase activity was exhibited by the following species of yeasts and yeast-like fungi: Rhodotorula glutinis, Candida utilis, C. membranaefaciens, C. kruisii, Geotrichum candidum, Aureobasidium pullulans. The highest activity was noted in the case of yeast-like fungus Geotrichum candidum. The obtained results revealed the ability of yeasts and yeast-like fungi to adapt to cellulose rich substrates under conditions of anthropogenic influence.
Keywords: yeasts, yeast-like fungi, endo-1.4-b-glucanase activity.
Bioconversion of organic substrata such as food waste with admixture of sawdust was investigated. Species composition of mycobiota and its alterations determined by the maintenance time and inoculation of the fungus-introducer Trichoderma harzianum Rifai C 82-93 were established. In the control substrata, fungi of the Mucorales order, as well as Geotrichum and Aspergillus genera prevailed. It was determined that Trichoderma harzianum C 82-93 strain colonised the studied substrata in the course of 15 days (population density reached 80 %). When food waste was composted with T. harzianum C 82-93 strain, the processes of humification were accelerated, total amount of nitrogen increased, and the quality of composts (C/N ratio) improved. The method of fungal inoculation into a large mass of substratum was tested under industrial conditions.
Keywords: composts, food waste, bioconversion, micromycetes, Trichoderma harzianum.
Rhytidiadelphus loreus is very rare in Lithuania. Only one locality of this species is known. It was recorded in spruce forest near Dieveniškės (South Lithuania, Šalčininkai district, Dieveniškės Historical Regional Park).
Keywords: Bryopsida, Hypnaceae, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, distribution, Lithuania.
Colletotichum acutatum Simmonds is reported as a new species of Coelomycetes in Lithuania. It was found on Lupinus luteus L. in Utena and Ukmergė districts in 2001.
Keywords: Colletotrichum acutatum, Lupinus luteus, distribution, Lithuania.