In 2000–2002 populations of Allium ursinum L. were investigated in woodland communities as well as in cutting areas. The potential and actual seed productions were calculated. From 16 to 37 % of ovules of A. ursinum developed to mature seeds in woodland communities, while in the cutting areas seeds were absent either because of frosts or infection by Botrytis sp. Seed production in woodland communities amounted to 4064 seeds per 1 m2. Number of flowering plants per square metre was quite variable and depended on different external and internal factors. In the investigated populations, 1–52 % of mature (flowering) plants propagated vegetatively developed mostly one daughter plant each. Nevertheless, vegetative propagation plays an important role in the plant reproduction in cutting areas and edges of stands.
Keywords: Allium ursinum, vegetative reproduction, generative reproduction, populations, density.
This study has been undertaken with an aim of putting forward soil–plant interactions of Rumex obtusifolius subsp. subalpinus (Polygonaceae) distributed in Western Anatolian part of Turkey. The soil analysis data showed that this plant prefers sandy-clayey-loam, loamy, clayey-loam soils. The clay texture is slightly alkaline and neutral by nature. It prefers non-saline and slightly saline soils. Calcium carbonate and nitrogen contents of the soils vary, but phosphorus and potassium contents are low. The plant analysis data showed that phosphorus content was general, but nitrogen and potassium contents were always within normal levels. While calcium carbonate content was generally below the normal levels. As a result of the regression analysis, a negative relation between plant potassium and soil pH, and a positive relation between plant calcium and soil total soluble salts were observed.
Keywords: Rumex obtisifolius subsp. subalpinus, soil–plant relation, distribution, West Anatolia, Turkey.
oelastrum species were investigated in the plankton samples from 22 lakes located in Vilnius region during 1997–1999. Six species – Coelastrum microporum, C. astroideum, C. cf. pseudomicroporum, C. reticulatum, C. proboscideum, C. cambricum – were identified. C. astroideum (13 lakes) and C. microporum (11 lakes) are the most spread species in Vilnius region. C. cambricum was found only in swamp lakes. C. cf. pseudomicroporum was recorded for the first time from Lithuanian terrestrial waters. C. sphaericum and C. indicum were found in plankton of water bodies from other regions of Lithuania. Species descriptions with original drawings, morphological features, distribution, and comments are provided.
Keywords: Chlorococcales, Coelastrum, plankton, diversity, morphology, distribution, lakes, Lithuania.
Two plant and one invertebrate tests were used for an assessment of six wastewater and one natural surface water samples collected in Kaunas. The sensitivities of Charatox with Nitellopsis obtusa 45-min resting potential depolarisation, Thamnotoxkit FTM with 24-h Thamnocephalus platyurus lethality, and Lepidium sativum 120-h root/shoot elongation inhibition tests were compared. Charatox showed good toxicity quantifying capacity (= 1.0 toxic units; TU) toward filtered and unfiltered samples, and the same results were revealed for Thamnotoxkit FTM, when filtered effluents were tested. Lepidium sativum root elongation test was characterised as having good toxicity detection capacity (= 0.4 TU), while Lepidium sativum shoot elongation test was assessed as inadequately sensitive for the toxicological assessment of studied effluents. The assessment of filtered and unfiltered samples showed that filtration significantly reduced toxicity of effluents tested by Nitellopsis obtusa and Lepidim sativum (roots). The relation of toxicity and chemical analysis data by using extended data base for Charatox and Thamnotoxkit FTM tests identified ammonium and total nitrogen as the main possible toxicants (r = 0.7–0.8).
Keywords: toxicity, effluents, biotesting, Nitellopsis obtusa, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Lepidium sativum.
The data on myxomycetes of the genus Symphytocarpus in Lithuania are presented. Three species are reported from the territory: S. flaccidus, S. cf. impexus, and S. trechisporus. S. confluens is excluded from the list of Lithuanian myxomycete biota. Localities of the species are mapped; some ecological peculiarities are briefly discussed.
Keywords: myxomycetes, Symphytocarpus, Lithuania.
The paper presents the results of the first stage of a conservation programme of lichens growing on silver fir (Abies alba) in Karkonosze National Park. The present lichen flora of this phorophyte comprises 43 species. Widespread, toxitolerant species, e.g., Lecanora conizaeoides, Scoliciosporum chlorococcum, Hypocenomyce scalaris, and H. caradocensis predominate; more sensitive lichens occur only in small, isolated refuges dependent on local environmental conditions. In the next stages of the conservation programme, changes in the lichen flora will be monitored, and reintroduction experiment will be implemented.
Keywords: lichens, conservation, Abies alba, Karkonosze National Park, Sudety Mountains, Poland.
Eighteen species of lichens, 11 species of lichenicolous and 2 species of non-lichenised saprobic fungi are reported as new to Lithuania: Absconditella lignicola, Bacidia biatorina, Bacidia laurocerasi, Buellia pharcidia, Calicium adspersum, Caloplaca herbidella, Caloplaca obscurella, Chaenothecopsis savonica, Chalara lichenicola, Epicladonia stenospora, Fellhaneropsis myrtillicola, Gyalecta flotowii, Hypocenomyce friesii, Lecanactis abietina, Lecidea botryosa, Leptorhaphis epidermidis, Lopadium disciforme, Marchandiomyces aurantiacus, Microcalicium disseminatum, Mycoblastus sanguinarius, Peltigera leucophlebia, Phaeopyxis punctum, Reichlingia leopoldii, Sclerophora farinacea, Stigmidium congestum, Taeniolella beschiana, Taeniolella phaeophysciae, Taeniolella punctata, Thelocarpon superellum, Thelotrema lepadinum, Tremella hypogymniae. Short characteristics of the collected specimens, notes on species ecology and distribution are given.
Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, Lithuania.
This paper presents the results of study carried out in six plant associations and in one community in three peat-bogs. Among the recorded plant communities, the most noteworthyones, both in mycological and floristic sense, were: Ericetum tetralicis, Caricetum limosae, and Rhynchosporetum albae. The highest number of fungal species was noted in Betuletum pubescentis.
Keywords: macromycetes, mycocoenology, plant communities, peat-bogs, Poland