The article identifies the effects of human activity on groundwater chemistry in the regional aquifer system located in the Wielkopolska region (western Poland). It was documented using statistical methods, that the main process influencing the groundwater chemistry is connected to contamination. The impact of contamination is evident in regions without sewers and where the aquitard is relative thin. Chloride and sulphatewere found most influenced by pollution from surface sources. Total hardness is also sensitive, but its behavior is controlled by geogenic processes as well. Factor analyses are a reliable tool for recognizing contamination’s impact on groundwater chemistry, especially for cases with a relatively low contamination level, when contamination is related to natural occurring water components. This research is important for implementing groundwater protection plans at the regional scale. These interpretations may be used to manage water resources better at the regional scale.
Raktažodžiai Keywords • groundwater contamination • factor analysis • groundwater chemistry
Santrauka The Varėna Suite comprises a set of ultramafic rocks: olivinic, pyroxenic, magnetitic, dolomitic, and apatite bearing rocks, which form complex bodies of few sq. km in the Precambrian crystalline basement near the Varėna town in Southern Lithuania. Occurrences of few mineral commodities are related to the Varėna Suite. Magnetitic rocks contain essential resources of high grade iron ores. Phlogopite, apatite, REE and Th mineralization is related to the Varėna Suite. The assessment of the potential for these commodities is primarily dependent on the origin of Varėna Suite, which is still disputed. The models of metasomatic (skarn), and igneous (layered intrusion) origin are proposed earlier. The article presents an overview and reinterpretation of the recent data on the Varėna Suite, its petrographic and geochemical characteristic, as well as the arguments for igneous origin of the Varėna Suite, as the polyphase intrusion with subsequent metasomatic alteration, with alkaline trend.
Raktažodžiai Keywords • Precambrian • ultramafic rocks • magnetite rocks • metasomatosis
Santrauka Samples of surface (0–3 cm) bottom sediments of the Lithuanian aquatic area of the Curonian Lagoon and Nemunas River delta were taken from 41 sites in 2013 and 2014. Sediment parameters, such as the percentage of particles, concentration of organic carbon and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Hg), were determined. The heavy metal contamination of the surface layer of bottom sediments was determined using the Nemerov’s pollution index applied to soil. The spatial distribution of contamination indices and the dependence of contamination dynamics on sedimentation factors were analysed. It was determined that heavy metal concentrations had a tendency to increase as sediment particles became finer and as Corg concentration increased. A greater amount of pollutants got into the aquatic area of the Curonian Lagoon that was closer to the Klaipėda harbour than into other lagoon zones. The heavy metals for the integral pollution index for the Curonian Lagoon and Nemunas River delta surface bottom sediments could be arranged in the following order: Cd>Pb>Cu>Ni>Hg>Cr>Zn.
Raktažodžiai bottom sediments • contaminants • heavy metals • pollution • mud • sand • sedimentation
Santrauka The Vistula Lagoon – one of the main recipients of the central and eastern parts of the Vistula delta – is not homogeneous in terms of its hydrodynamics and hydrochemistry. In the southern part a separate hydrographic object – the Gulf of Elbląg – can be delimited. This delimitation is due to different morphometric and hydrometeorological conditions that prevail in this part of the Vistula Lagoon. In order to determine the nature of the waters, measurements of the selected physico-chemical properties, including chlorides, as well as control hydrological measurements were performed in the years 1997–2007. The study area included the water of the Gulf of Elbląg, the estuary stretch of the Elbląg River, the watercourses flowing from the Elbląg Plateau and the polder areas surrounding the Gulf of Elbląg. One measurement point was located on the Vistula Lagoon. The chloride values in the Gulf of Elbląg ranged from 20 to 2015 mg·dm-3. The results may indicate that the Gulf of Elbląg is a reservoir under the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical influence of both the Vistula Lagoon and the watercourses in its mouth, as well as the Vistula delta and the Elbląg Plateau. They dictate the seasonal nature of the waters of the Gulf of Elbląg.
Raktažodžiai Vistula Lagoon, Elbląska Bay, hydrochemical variability, geoecosystem, geographical conditions, circulating water
Santrauka Five major uses of sea space in the Russian sector of the southeastern Baltic Sea (SEBS) are navigation, fishery, mining, recreation, and military uses. A brief description of each existing and future marine space user as well as conflicts between them are presented in this study. The total area of each use was calculated. The most extensive zones are occupied by commercial fishery and military uses, which cover almost the entire exclusive economical zone. Special attention was made for potential marine protected areas (especially in offshore areas of the Curonian Spit, which is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List), which are not under legislation of the Kaliningrad Oblast’ but require a particular defence. The area offshore of the western coast has the greatest economic activity and is the most vulnerable part of the open sea. Future intensification of the marine space use will result in increased negative load to the marine environment. Sustainable development concept and maritime spatial planning are declarative at the state level for many years, there is still no implementation mechanism.
Raktažodžiai maritime spatial planning • conflict use areas • south-eastern Baltic Sea
Santrauka Sediment samples have been collected along the sea coast of the Curonian Spit in summer season of 2011, 2014 and 2015-years. According to grain size analysis the shoreline and the berm consist of well and very well-sorted sand, medium-sized on the southern (Russian) part of the spit, medium and fine on the northern (Lithuanian) part. ‘McLaren’ method was applied to determine the long-shore sediment transport directions. Mismatch of results with those obtained by methods based on simulation of resulted wave action did not prove the hypothesis that ‘McLaren’ method was able to reveal long-term resulted sediment transport. The hypothesis that ‘McLaren’ method indicates the directions of alongshore sediment transport during the stormy conditions preceding the sampling period was not proved also. It was concluded that application of ‘McLaren’ method in respect of the Curonian Spit shore, which is a transit one without permanent sources or sinks of sediments, is not efficient. ‘McLaren’ method was applied to describe the cross-shore sediment movement. It was found that deposits from the trough (located between the bar and shoreline) are transported to the shoreline that is in a line with the known fact about cross-shore transport of bottom material during the calm weather.
Raktažodžiai sediment transport • grain size analysis • grain-size distribution statistics •‘McLaren’ method
Saulius Gulbinskas (1961–2016), a marine geologist, was a gifted scholar, active researcher, who carried out investigations in the fields of marine sedimentology and seacoast processes. as well as the marine environment protection. S. Gulbinskas was a member of the BALTICA Scientific Committee.
Abstract Tom Flodén (1937–2016), a marine geophysicist and geologist, was an excellent researcher, teacher, writer of scientific reports. Much of his work was both innovative and pioneering providing a new vision of the submarine geology of the various parts of the Baltic Sea. T. Flodén was a member of the BALTICA Scientific Committee.