Ornithopus perpusillus has been reported for the first time from Lithuania in 1898 when the only site has been indicated at Klaipėda harbour. In 1998, the species was found in the Curonian Spit near Nida. Ecological conditions, structure of the community, characteristics of the hebitat are overviewed, and the distribution is discussed in the paper. It is supposed that Ornithopus perpusillus is naturally distributed in the Curonian Spit and that the locality appears to be situated apart to the east from the main distribution area.
Keywords: Ornithopus perpusillus, biology, distribution, community, Curonian Spit, Lithuania.
In 2001 new species for Lithuanian flora – Polystichum lonchitis – was found in Labanoras Regional Park (Švenčionys district, East Lithuania). The species was found in a pit of anthropogenic origin in the community of mixed forest (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Fraxinus excelsior, Salix caprea, Tilia cordata). This pit was overgrown with mosses (Hylocomium splendens) and herbs (Dryopteris carthusiana, D. filixmas, Fragaria vesca, Luzula pilosa, Vicia pisiformis). Geographical distribution, morphologic and ecologic characteristics of the species are described.
Keywords: Pteridophyta, Polystichum lonchitis, distribution, Lithuania.
On the basis of research (data of forest monitoring permanent observation plots) and literature rewiev, 25 new morphological forms of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris have been described. Some of them, for example, Picea abies f. mammillosa Schröter, Picea abies f. anguina Schröd, Pinus sylvestris f. reflexa Heer, etc., have been mentioned for the first time.
Keywords: Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, morphology, forms, Lithuania.
Lithuanian names approved for ×Citrofortunella J. Ingram et H. E. Moore, ×Citroncirus J. Ingram et H. E. Moore, Citrus L., Fortunella Swingle, and Limonia L. species and their fruits are presented in this paper. Scientific names, main synonyms, common names of plants and fruits in different languages, frequently used trade names, short information on plant and fruit uses are supplied.
Keywords: Rutaceae, Citroidea, fruits, plants, Lithuanian names.
Labanoras Telmological Reserve is situated in Labanoras Regional Park (Švenčionys district, East Lithuania). The western part of the reserve, occupying an area of about 1 km2, harbours 19 species included into the Red Data Book of Lithuania. Three plant species, one butterfly species included in the Annex II of EU Habitat Directive, and three habitat types of European importance were identified in this territory. Data on species and their populations are presented, and measures of conservation are briefly discussed.
Keywords: Liparis loeselii, Saxifraga hirculus, Thesium ebracteatum, Euphydrias aurinia, Labanoras Regional Park, Lithuania.
The paper presents results of investigations on the relations between the type of substrata and the development of mycorrhizae in Pinus sylvestris seedlings at forest nursery. It was proved that poor soils are more suitable for mycorrhizae development. The results show that pine seedlings growing in control possess the highest number of well-developed mycorrhizae, i. e., on average 68 mycorrhizae per one seedling (the control was equaled to 100 %). In litter from pine stands and in decomposed peat the numbers of mycorrhizae were similar 84.6 % and 84 %, respectively. When litter of oak stands was used, the total amount of mycorrhizae reached 91.3 %, and the ectomycorrhizae increased by 27.9 % comparing with ectendo- and dead mycorrhizae. Various morphotypes of ectomycorrhizae were most spread in seedlings of Švenčionėliai provenance.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris, forest litter, provenance, ectendomycorrhizae, ectomycorrhizae, mycorrhizal morphotypes, growth parameters, forest nursery.
During active vegetation season of 2000 (spring–autumn), phytoplankton primary production, extracellular release of organic compounds, and heterotrophic utilisation were investigated in the euphotic zone of a mesotrophic Lake Balsys in order to estimate organic carbon flow in the area of algal–bacterial interaction. The maximum values of total produc-tion (cellular and extracellular) were observed in the middle of summer when Chlorophyceae dominated by their abundance and Chryptophyceae with Bacillariophyceae – by their biomass. Relative significance of extracellular production was in inverse ratio to cellular algae production. Bacterial population utilised 2–4 times more excreted organic carbon in the beginning of summer than bacteria in late summer; whereas, the values of assimilation not always depended on the amount of exudates. Most part of assimilated organic carbon (75 %) was used by heterotrophic bacteria as a source of energy.
Keywords: planktonic algae, bacteria, primary production, organic carbon excretion, bacterial utilisation, freshwater ecosystem.
Toxic and genotoxic impacts of wastewater from various industrial establishments as well as water and bottom sediments from various water basins on plants test-organisms were ascertained. Phytotoxicity tests were performed on the following higher plants: great duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza (L) Schleid.), garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.), and spiderwort (Tradescantia clone 02). It was established that the toxicity of wastewater from the Ignalina NPP (which get into Lake Drūkšiai) was lower than the toxicity of wastewater from “Elnias” factory (after treatment). The obtained data showed that water from Lake Drūkšiai was nontoxic or slightly toxic to plants test-organisms, while the bottom sediments of the lake from the zone of the impact of the Ignalina NPP wastewater treatment plant and from the littoral and shoreline were highly toxic to the tested plants. Water and bottom sediments from Kiev water reservoir induced significant part of pink mutations of Tradescantia SH system. It was determined that the amount of pink mutations caused by these sediments was directly related to specific activity of 137Cs. Water and bottom sediments from the wastewater canals of the Ignalina NPP and from Lake Drūkšiai caused colourless and morphological mutations, and only a slight amount of pink mutations. The obtained data signify that the genotoxicity of water and bottom sediments from Kiev water reservoir was stipulated by radioactive waste; whereas, in Ignalina NPP canals and Lake Drūkšiai it depended more upon total impact of different toxic matters.
Keywords: ecotoxicology, test-organisms, mutations, Spirodela polyrhiza, Tradescantia, Lepidium sativum.
The study presents the results of research on microbial communities in fuel-oil-contaminated soil. The greatest quantity of bacteria and yeasts was detected in highly polluted soil. On the contrary, the quantity of fungi and their species composition there was rather poor. In this type of soil dominant fungi and yeast-like fungi species were Geotrichum candidum Link ex Pers. and Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb. ex Fr.) Vuill. Microbiological parameters may be used as an indicator of the environmental contamination level.
Keywords: bacteria, yeast, fungi, fuel-oil, soil pollution.
The paper presents information on two new localities of Galium triflorum Michx. (Rubiaceae Juss.) in Lithuania. Until 1996 Galium triflorum was found in a few localities in eastern and south-eastern Lithuania. New localities of this species were revealed in Šiauliai region (Kurtuvėnai Regional Park).
Keywords: Galium triflorum, locality, Kurtuvėnai Regional Park, Lithuania.