The paper reports quantitative indices of the efficiency of sanding techniques on the development of large-fruited cranberries (Oxycoccus macrocarpus (Aiton) Pursh) in raised and transitional peat-bogs in Belarus. The change in ecological factors of cranberry production through the “structural reclamation” has revealed that this practice offers few advantages over sand mulching and has a beneficial effect on biological productivity parameters of cranberry.
Keywords: Oxycoccus macrocarpus, sanding, structural reclamation, peatland, biological productivity.
The species composition of macromycetes in Dusetos forest, Sartai Regional Park, was assessed. A total of 284 macromycete (19 ascomycetes and 265 basidiomycetes) species were registered. Nine species (Gyromitra sphaerospora, Lentinellus castoreus, Mycena capillaripes, M. viridinomarginata, Perenniporia subacida, Polyporus tuberaster, Postia ptychogaster, Thanatephorus terrigenus and Thelephora penicillata) have not been previously recorded in Lithuania. Wood saprotrophs, most of them associated with deciduous trees, comprise the largest part (52 %) of registered macromycetes. Dusetos forest provides a habitat for 31 red listed and woodland key habitat indicator species. Most of them are found in strictly protected part of the forest (Vosyna Strict Nature Reserve) and in sites treated as ‘woodland key habitats’. The study data highlight the importance of preserving old deciduous stands as well as maintaining high amount of dead wood in Dusetos forest.
Keywords: ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, species composition, woodland key habitats, protected territories, Lithuania.
Twenty-two species of the Caloplaca Th. Fr. genus are reported from the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian Far East). Among them 18 species are indicated as new for Kamchatka; only four species have been recorded during earlier investigations. Caloplaca crenulatella and C. fulvolutea are reported for the first time for Russia and C. sorocarpa – for Russian Asia. Caloplaca ammiospila, C. aurantia, ?. flavorubescens, C. granulos?, and C. jungermanniae are excluded from Kamchatka lichen lists. Some data on habitat ecology and distribution of species are presented. Caloplaca vicaria is synonymized here with C. kamczatica, and C. brattiae – with C. etesiae. Combination C. gordejevi (Tomin) Oxner is newly validated here. Lectotypes of C. etesiae, C. gordejevi, and C. kamczatica are selected.
Keywords: Caloplaca, taxonomy, lectotypification, biogeography, Kamchatka, Russian Far East.
Multiyear dynamics (1991–2001) of 137Cs content in bilberry and cranberry in Ukrainian Polessye was analyzed. Essential decrease of 137Cs content in all berry-plants during the period of investigations was revealed. Duration of effective ecological period of half-selfcleaning of berry-plants from 137Cs was calculated: for berries of bilberry – 7.46 years (for forest type B3) and 12.58 years (for forest type B4); for cranberry berries – 5.99 years (for forest type A5) and 9.54 years (for forest type B4).
Keywords: bilberry, cranberry, radiocontamination, 137Cs, half-selfcleaning.
It was supposed that mycorrhizal and endophytic micromycetes take part in transfere of mineral substances and 137Cs from sphagnum mosses and peat litter to ericoid plants. This article deals with the estimation of the distribution of endophytic fungi in these plants. Micromycetes of 42 species belonging to 25 genera were identified. For moss and ericoid plants 5 common species of endophytic fungi were found. The investigation revealed that micromycetes are the connecting link between sphagnum, peat litter and vascular plants in the process of redistribution of elements of mineral nutrition and 137Cs on sphagnous ombrotrophic bogs of Ukrainian Polessye and other regions.
Keywords: Sphagnum, Oxycoccus, Vaccinium, radionuclides, bogs, micromycetes, mycorrhiza, Ukraine.
Plants of Drummond phlox (Phlox drummondii Hook.) exhibiting symptoms characteristic of viral and phytoplasmal diseases were collected at Vilnius Planting Verdure Trust and at Botanical Gardens of Vilnius and Klaipėda Universities. The causal agents of viral disease, Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV), was isolated and identified by the methods of test-plants and electron microscopy. The causal agent of phytoplasmal disease was detected in polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) containing phytoplasma universal primer pair R16F2n/R16R2 and template DNA extracted from diseased plants. The 1.2 kbp 16S rDNA product was subjected to single enzyme digestions with 11 different restriction endonucleases. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis revealed that the Drummond phlox plants growing in different regions were infected by the same phytoplasma belonging to group 16SrI (aster yellows phytoplasma group), subgroup M.
Keywords: Phlox drumondii, identification, virus, phytoplasma, PCR, RFLP.
Phytophthora fragariae Hickman is reported as a new species of Peronosporomycetes (Oomycetes) in Lithuania. In 2000–2003, 102 samples of strawberry and raspberry were investigated. P. fragariae was first identified on the roots of strawberry ‘Polka’ in 2000. This taxon is described and illustrated.
Keywords: Fragaria ananassa, Lithuania, Phytophthora fragariae.