The study provides data on habitat inventory (according to EUNIS classification) in Girutiškis Strict Nature Reserve (Eastern Lithuania). An overview of the habitat diversity, environmental assessment of the area – occurrence of the habitats of European importance, their recent and future state, distribution of rare and endangered plant species in different habitats are introduced. Eighteen habitat types were indicated in Girutiškis Reserve. Woodland habitats dominate both on mineral soil and on peat. Open mires cover about 14 %. Girutiškis Reserve is a territory of high conservation value. Even 92 % of its territory is occupied by Natura 2000 habitats. The state of most Natura 2000 habitats is good and stable. There were registered 23 plant species included into the Red Data Book of Lithuania, among them 4 species are included into EU Habitat Directive Annex II and Bern Convention Annex I.
Keywords: habitats, communities, Girutiškis Strict Nature Reserve, diversity, Lithuania, EUNIS classification, mapping, rare plant species.
A new species in Lithuania Zizania latifolia (Griseb.) Turcz. ex Stapf was spotted in the Dotnuvėlė stream near Akademija pond in Akademija town (N 55o24’, E 23o50’) Kėdainiai district in 2006. A detailed investigation of Z. latifolia in Akademija pond showed that it was most spread in the communities of class Phragmito-Magnocaricetea Klika in Klika et Novák 1941. Zizania latifolia formed monodominant community Zizanietum Akht. 1987. In the pond and near it 21 patches were recorded. The total area covered by these plants was over 2500 m2. Observations showed that Z. latifolia successfully out-competed Phragmites australis and other less abundant species of pond in its most thriving patches. It can be presumed that Zizania latifolia has potential for further spread in Akademija pond and further.
Keywords: Zizania latifolia, Poaceae, Lithuania, alien species, mesotrophic water body.
An efficient method for mass micro propagation of Pleione praecox (J. E. Smith) D. Don (Orchidaceae) was developed from asymbiotic immature seed culture. Both direct and callus-mediated formation of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) occurred from explant. High frequency (90–95 %) of seed germination and direct protocorm-like body formation were observed in the Orchimax medium supplemented with 0.1–0.2 mg/l α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 15 % coconut water (CW). Callusing of seed explant was noted in the same basal medium supplemented with 1–2 mg/l NAA and 15 % coconut water. Subsequent regeneration of PLBs and development of plantlets from callus tissue was found only in the absence of NAA in the medium. Rooting plantlets were obtained only in basal medium free from hormone and adjunct.
Keywords: Pleione praecox, direct and indirect protocorm, plantlet formation.
Brief characteristics, original pictures, ecology and distribution of the three Nostoc species (N. carneum, N. ellipsosporum, and N. spongiaeforme) new in Lithuania are provided. Several morphological features of specimens found in Lithuania do not correspond to the typical description of species: N. carneum heterocytes are elliptical and spherical, vegetative cells are with aerotops; N. ellipsosporum akinetes are cylindrical, elliptical and spherical; N. spongiaeforme heterocytes are located single or in rows; akinetes are oblong and elliptical. New data on earlier described Nostoc species (N. caeruleum, N. commune, N. linckia, N. pruniforme, N. punctiforme, N. verrucosum) in Lithuania are also provided.
Keywords: new species, Nostoc, freshwaters, Lithuania.
The fungal pathogen of Dothistroma (red-band) needle blight Mycosphaerella pini Rostr., (anamorphic stage Dothistroma septosporum (Dorog.) M. Morelet) was found widely spread on the needles of native pine Pinus sylvestris in eastern, central and southern parts of Lithuania. During the first observations the teleomorphic stage was not found, only anamorphic stage was obtained during the present study. Information on the distribution patterns, ecological and morphological peculiarities of this species are given.
Keywords: ascomycetes, anamorphic fungi, Dothistroma (red-band) needle blight, Pinus, Lithuania.
Ability of micromycetes, destructors of lignin-cellulose complex, to degrade hemicellulose in plant remnants under liquid-phase growth conditions was investigated. It was determined that deeper hemicellulose destruction occurred after 20 days of micromycetes growth. In this period the hemicellulose content was most evidently reduced by Chaetomium globosum (9.7 %), Mortierella verticillata (10.7 %) and Myrothecium verrucaria (10.9 %). The weakest hemicellulose degradation was performed by Fusarium redolens (16.1 %) and Acremonium strictum (13.2 %). The Chaetomium globosum was most promising micromycete in hemicellulose destruction under liquid-phase fermentation conditions.
Keywords: rye straw, micromycetes, hemicellulose.
Plants of Rudbeckia hirta L. exhibiting symptoms characteristic of viral (plant stunting, flower distortion, necrotic spots on leaves) and phytoplasmal (general yellows, stunting, virescence) diseases were collected for investigation. The causal agent of viral disease, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), was isolated and identified by the methods of test-plants, electron microscopy, DAS-ELISA, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The causal agent of phytoplasmal disease was detected in polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) using phytoplasma universal primer pairs P1/P7 and R16F2n/R16R2 and DNA extracted from diseased rudbeckias. The 1.2 kbp 16S rDNA product was subjected to single enzyme digestions with 9 different restriction endonucleases. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis revealed that rudbeckia plants were infected by phytoplasma belonging to group 16SrI (aster yellows phytoplasma group), subgroup M.
Keywords: Rudbeckia, virus, phytoplasma, identification.