Comparative foliar epidermal characteristics of 15 species of Acalypha L. in West Africa are analysed using both light and scanning electron microscopy. Presence of hypostomatic leaves supports the series accepted by Bentham and Hooker (ser. Pantogynae-Acrogynae and ser. Pantogynae-Pleurogynae) except A. wilkesiana. In taxa of other series amphistomatic leaves were recorded. Among other taxonomically useful features of the genus are polygonal and irregular epidermal cell shapes, curved and undulate anticlinal walls, presence of regular to irregular striae and deposition of waxy flakes on the leaf surfaces. A. ceraceopunctata and A. segetalis can be distinguished from other species by the presence of peltate scale and only paracytic stomata respectively. An artificial bracketed dichotomous key is presented to delimit species of the genus Acalypha.
Keywords: Acalypha, morphology, epidermal cell, stomata, taxonomy.
This paper continues descriptions of the epiphyton cyanobacteria newly recorded in the water bodies of Lithuania and deals with filamentous species. In total 84 species of Cyanophyceae were registered. Oscillatoriales, Nostocales, Stigonematales made up 54 % of recorded cyanobacteria. Geitlerinema acutissimum, Leibleinia epiphytica, Limnothrix lauterbornii, Phormidium amoenum, Pseudanabaena catenata, P. papillaterminata, Schizothrix lacustris, Nostoc paludosum, Calothrix braunii, C. columbiana represent a new contribution to the algal flora of Lithuanian freshwaters. Species descriptions with original measurements and illustrations, their occurrence, ecological and distribution data are given. Species are widespread worldwide with exception of Pseudanabaena papillaterminata and Calothrix columbiana. The recorded cyanobacteria are common, but not abundant in epiphyton of Lithuanian lakes.
Keywords: filamentous cyanobacteria, Oscillatoriales, Nostocales, epiphyton, lakes, Lithuania.
This paper contains information on biology and ecology of Batrachospermum keratophytum – a new species to Lithuanian algal flora. Also new data on morphology, ecology, and distribution as well as illustrations of the earlier described species Audouinella chalybea, A. pygmaea, Batrachospermum anatinum, B. boryanum, B. gelatinosum, B. turfosum, and Hildenbrandia rivularis are provided.
Keywords: freshwater red algae, Batrachospermum, Turfosa, Audouinella, Hildenbrandia, morphometry, Lithuania.
The paper deals with microscopic fungi colonizing different submerged substrates of the forest litter in the temperate lotic habitat – small freshwater stream located in the mixed spruce-dominated forest (Trakai district, South Eastern Lithuania). Present study indicates that substantial differences exist in species richness, species composition and colonizing activity of fungal communities inhabiting different substrates – decaying leaves, wood debris and needles. In total 51 species belonging to 45 genera are reported; 8 species, Chalara picea-abies, Dactylaria purpurella, Helicoon richonis, Hymenoscyphus imberbis, Mirandina corticola, Pseudohalonectria lutea, Pleospora hydrophila, and Tumularia aquatica, are registered for the first time in Lithuania. Biodiversity, ecological peculiarities of the recorded species, their frequency of occurrence, and substrate preferences are discussed.
Keywords: aquatic fungi, lotic habitat, mixed spruce-dominant forest, diversity.
Eighty seven species of clavarioid fungi are reported from Lithuania, including 50 species new for the country. The most frequently recorded species are Typhula erythropus, Clavulina cinerea, Clavulina coralloides, Macrotyphula juncea, Lentaria byssiseda, Typhula setipes, and Ramaria stricta. They account for around 40 % of all observations, though comprise only 12 % of all the species. 36 % of species were found less than four times (only 9 % of specimens), and altogether these rare species make up three quarters of the total species richness. For some species Lithuania is apparently the southern limit of their lowland distribution in the Northern Hemisphere (Clavaria argillacea var. sphagnicola, Clavariadelphus sachalinensis, Multiclavula vernalis, Typhula lutescens). At present, the Eastern Baltic hemiboreal complex of the clavarioid fungi includes 118 species, whilst 106 are known from the temperate zone.
Keywords: Basidiomycota, distribution, ecology, Eastern Baltic, Eurasia, hemiboreal zone, temperate zone.
Vasudevella caricina collected on dead leaves of Carex appropinquata in the environs of Vilnius (Lithuania) is described as a new species. The fungus is briefly discussed, compared with similar species and illustrated.
Keywords: anamorphic fungi, Vasudevella caricina, taxonomy, herbicolous.
Fujimyces oödes (Coelomycetes) is reported for the first time in Lithuania. A new variety, Fujimyces oödes var. curvatospora, var. nov. is described. Both varieties are described, illustrated and briefly discussed.
Keywords: anamorphic fungi, Fujimyces, distribution, Lithuania.
Samples of raw fish, fish products, water, air and swabs from different surfaces were collected in a fish processing company. The total bacterial contamination, plus contamination by Listeria spp., Pseudomonas spp., enterobacteria, yeasts and micromycetes were determined. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from the raw fish samples, stored in the storerooms, from the floors of the ripening room, from the prepacking and filleting room, from samples of fish waste and from brine. Pseudomonas spp. strains were isolated during different stages of fish processing. Most bacterial isolates were identified as P. fluorescens biovar I. Particularly abundant Pseudomonas spp. bacteria were isolated from fish waste samples. The raw fish, the water and the brine were contaminated by low numbers of enterobacteria. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Yarowia lipolytica, Geotrichum fermentans and Candida glabrata were yeast species dominating in the raw fish and industrial environmental samples, although their numbers were low. Micromycetes of the genus Cladosporium and Penicillium were isolated in high numbers from fish waste samples.
Keywords: bacteria, enterobacteria, fish products, Listeria monocytogenes, micromycetes, Pseudomonas, yeasts.