The paper aims to define the autogenic succession of sand vegetation of the Baltic Sea coast of Lithuania. The succession sequence of plant communities situated in Lithuanian seacoast, located in the direction from West to East, was created. The regularities of sand communities succession were revealed. Only species (Ammophila arenaria, Honckenya peploides, Leymus arenarius, Calamagrostis epigejos) adapted to the growth on dry sand form short-lived thickets on the seashore. The communities situated in different places of foredunes perform different functions: species-poor Leymo-Ammophiletum subas. typicum and Leymo-Ammophiletum subas. petasitetosum communities located on the western slope consist of psammophytes that fasten the drifting sand; the two layer grassland of Leymo-Ammophiletum subas. festucetosum sabulosae located on the top of the foredunes decreases the fluctuations of temperature and humidity; in the two-layer (herb and moss layers) Leymo-Ammophiletum subas. artemisietosum stretching on the eastern slope humus begins to accumulate. In palve the drifted sand is stopped by the abundantly growing Carex arenaria, Corynephorus canescens, Festuca sabulosa, Festuca polesica, solitary, thick groves of Empetrum nigrum, and the continuous cover of moss and lichens. In palve strength of winds and irreciprocal stream is reduced and dispersed by abundantly growing shrubs of Salix rosmarinifolia, Salix daphnoides, and low Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula trees. In the primary forest communities Pinus sylvestris is abundant in tree layer. In further succession stages Pinus sylvestris gets thinner. In herb layer the dominant plants with wide ecologic range are replaced by plants characteristic to forest communities (Deschampsia flexuosa, Melampyrum nemorosum, Luzula multiflora, Trientalis europea, Majanthemum bifolium), bryophytes get thicker, leaf-litter forms, the amount of humus increases. It was revealed that the edaphic climax of sand vegetation in Lithuanian seacoast corresponds to Leymo-Ammophiletum arenariae, while climatic climax – to Querco-Piceetum communities.
Keywords: succession, endoecogenesis, syngenesis, vegetation, foredune, palve, Curonian Spit, Baltic Sea coast, Lithuania.
In this paper a comparative study of morphological and anatomical properties of Galanthus fosteri Baker var. fosteri and Galanthus fosteri Baker var. antepensis N. Zeybek et E. Sauer distributed in various geographical regions in Turkey is presented. Both varieties are economically important. These two varieties are native to East Mediterranean region. Morphological properties of bulb, root, neck, scape, leaf, pedicel, spatha, flower, fruit, and seed are given in detail. During this study stable morphological properties are handled as taxonomic characters. A comparison of anatomical structure of root, neck, scape, and leaf cross-sections are described and discussed.
Keywords: Galanthus fosteri, morphology, anatomy, geophyte, stomatal index, Turkey.
In the present paper the chromosome number and morphology of four species belonging to the Salvia L. genus are analyzed. The species are Salvia aethiopis L., Salvia ceratophylla L., Salvia verticillata L. subsp. verticillata, and Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca. The chromosome number of Salvia aethiopis is 2n = 22, Salvia ceratophylla 2n = 18, Salvia verticillata subsp. verticillata 2n = 32, and Salvia verticillata subsp. amasiaca 2n = 16.
Keywords: Salvia, karyotype, Turkey.
Karyotypic study of 13 populations belonging to 7 Iranian Lotus species was performed for the first time. The study showed x = 6 and 7 are available in Iranian Lotus species; all taxa studied, except for, L. corniculatus (4x) were diploid. The studied species varied in their karyotypic formulae and symmetry. They also differed significantly in their total chromatin length as well as size of long arms and short arms of chromosomes, indicating the occurrence of both structural and quantitative changes in their karyotypes during the species diversification. Clustering of the Lotus species based on karyotypic features partly supports their taxonomic treatment.
Keywords: karyotype formulae, Lotus, symmetry, populations, Iran.
The crude ethanolic extracts of Hypericum perforatum L. were analyzed for antifungal activity. High inhibitory effect of H. perforatum extracts was observed against Fusarium culmorum, lower activity was detected against Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer, Penicillium verruculosum, and Aspergillus niger. Hypericum perforatum extracts were less active against some fungal species, such as Aspergilus niger, Acremonium strictum, and Aureobasidium pullulans, than the antifungal agent (nystatine). The maximum activity determined by agar diffusion method was shown by the extract of H. perforatum ‘Zolotodolinskaya’ No. 278 (N-4) and minimum activity was shown by the extract of H. perforatum No. 415 (N-1). Five secondary metabolites have been identified from the analysis of extracts performed with the HPLC. The accumulation level of hypericin and flavonoids (rutin, hyperoside, quercitrin, quercetin) highly varies and shows considerable heterogeneity among extracts from different accessions of H. perforatum.
Keywords: Hypericum perforatum, antifungal activity, fungi, flavonoids, hypericin.
Melampsora amygdalinae Kleb. on Salix alba L., Puccinia brachypodii G. H. Otth on Berberis crataegina DC., Puccinia istriaca Syd. on Teucrium polium L., Puccinia picridii Woron. on Reichardia glauca Matthews, and Uredo junci-glauci Tranzschel on Juncus articulatus L. are reported for the first time from Turkey. Descriptions and illustrations are presented, all based on Turkish specimens.
Keywords: rust fungi, new records, Turkey.
Phytophthora cactorum was found for the first time in Lithuania in a rhododendron plantation in Kaunas (Central Lithuania) and subsequently in the collection of rhododendrons at Šiauliai University (Northern Lithuania) in 2004. In August 2005 it was identified on rhododendrons that had been imported from Poland in July. Symptoms included black water-soaked stem lesions resulting in wilting of the aerial parts. A fungus-like organism with morphology typical of Phytophthora cactorum was consistently isolated. The culture showed characteristic features – on selective media at 23 °C the colony was fluffy but not dense, sporangia were caducous, papillate with short pedicles. Cultures were homothallic, typical oospores were observed in culture.
Keywords: Phytophthora cactorum, Phytophthora ramorum, Rhododendron, Lithuania.