The cognition of Lithuanian bryoflora (number of species and their frequency, systematic structure) varied in different periods of investigations. Currently 471 species of bryophytes (117 liverworts and 354 mosses) are known in Lithuania. The main bryoflora characteristics (systematic structure, ecological and biological features, spectra of life history strategies) are overviewed. The level of the investigations on diversity and distribution pattern of bryophyte species in protected territories (National Parks, Strict Nature Reserves and Regional Parks) of Lithuania is introduced.
Keywords: bryoflora, diversity, Lithuania, ecology, life history strategies, investigations, protected territories.
The first results about Lobelia dortmanna L. populations located in two no stratified semidistrofic lakes on sandy substrates typical for Lithuania are presented. The method that allows determination of the density of virgin and generative individuals without removal of plants and disturbing the natural structure of the population was applied. The average numbers of virgin and generative L. dortmanna plants in Lake Ešerinis and Salaitis were 542±293 and 801±161 individuals/m2, respectively, and the numbers of flowering plants – 46±20 and 41±7 individuals/m2. The length of inflorescence stems varied from 27.0 to 72.5 (mean 43.3±11.7) cm in Lake Ešerinis and from 40 to 75 (mean 55.4±8.5) cm in Lake Salaitis. The numbers of seed capsules or flowers ranged from 1–5 (mean 2.0±1.7) in Lake Ešerinis and from 2 to 6 (mean 3.4±0.9) – in Lake Salaitis. The maturity age was determined for removed plants from 25 cm2 squares. Both populations comprise plants of the main maturity stages (seedlings, juvenile + immature, virgin and generative). Seedlings (45 %) and juvenile + immature (37 %) individuals were dominant in Lake Ešerinis, whereas virgin (49 %) individuals – in Lake Salaitis. According to the density of virgin and generative individuals and occurrence of plants of the main maturity age groups both populations are abundant and capable for regeneration. The lakes are situated in protected area with low human activity, therefore natural and global acidification in both lakes and concurrence with helophyte species in Lake Ešerinis are the main threats.
Keywords: Lobelia dortmanna, isoetid, population, density, maturity age.
Fifty-seven species are presented here, of which 17 lichenized (Bacidia adastra, Biatora efflorescens, Caloplaca pyracea, Catillaria nigroclavata, Lecania naegelii, Lecanora compallens, Lecidella flavosorediata, L. subviridis, Lepraria eburnea, L. elobata, L. jackii, L. lobificans, L. rigidula, L. vouauxii, Piccolia ochrophora, Rinodina pyrina and Xanthomendoza ulophyllodes) and 9 lichenicolous (Illosporiopsis christiansenii, Lichenosticta alcicornaria, Monodictys epilepraria, Muellerella hospitans, Phoma cytospora, Refractohilum intermedium, Syzygospora physciacearum, Tremella candelariellae and Xanthoriicola physciae) are reported from Latvia for the first time; four of these, Piccolia ochrophora, Refractohilum intermedium, Tremella candelariellae and Xanthomendoza ulophyllodes, are new for the Baltic countries. Two lichens (Cladonia chlorophaea s.str. and Lepraria incana) reported earlier from Latvia, have been confirmed by thin-layer chromatography.
Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, distribution, biodiversity, Baltic countries.
Results of the inventory of lichens and allied fungi of Punios Šilas Strict Nature Reserve – part of the Punios Šilas forest complex are presented. 161 species (including 10 lichenicolous and 5 nonlichenized saprobic fungi) are reported from the Reserve territory. One lichen species – Micarea myriocarpa is reported for the first time in Lithuania.
Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, Lithuania, protected areas.
Distribution, habitat requirements and chemistry of Stereocaulon alpinum, S. paschale and S. taeniarum in Poland have been revised. S. alpinum var. erectum is reported as new to Poland.
Keywords: lichenized Ascomycota, Stereocaulaceae, lichen chemistry, biodiversity.
Results of annual field survey conducted in 2008 indicated that the incidence of eyespot (disease agents – Oculimacula yallundae (Wallwork et Spooner) Crous et W. Gams and O. acuformis (Boerema, R. Pieters et Hamers) Crous et W. Gams) differed according to cereal types and sites. The highest eyespot incidence was observed in winter wheat crops. On the basis of colony morphology, in all tested crops isolates from diseased cereal stems were characterized as Oculimacula yallundae (OY) and O. acuformis (OA) and mix-type. The frequency distribution of OY and OA differed through the site and the crop. According to the data of gel-based PCR analysis of 67 isolates of Oculimacula spp., 57 were found to be mix-type of OY and OA and gave the expected 1050 bp band with primers Ty16F and Ty 16R (OY) and 330 bp band with primers Ta05F and Ta05R (OA). Only 4 isolates were found to be a single OY and 6 – single OA species.
Keywords: eyespot, winter wheat, rye, triticale, Oculimacula yallundae, O. acuformis.
Plants of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench exhibiting symptoms characteristic of viral diseases (plant stunting, leaf malformation, various shaped chlorotic spots, ringspots) were collected at the Botanical Garden of Vilnius University in 2008. The causal agents of viral diseases, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), have been isolated and identified by the methods of test-plants, electron microscopy, double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA), and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). TRV and TRSV have been found in purple coneflower plants in mixed viral infection.
Keywords: Echinacea, Tobacco rattle virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, identification.