Phenology and biometric parameters of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) shrubs were studied in four habitats which differed in flora (forests of Vacciniosa and Vaccinioso-myrtillosa type) and relief. The highest shrubs and longest shoots were recorded in the habitat of Vacciniosa type on an east-facing slope, in other habitats these parameters were lower. The number of lingonberry shrubs per 1 m2 and cover changed randomly in all habitats. The number of flower buds and flowering branches and its ratio with the number of all branches per 1 m2 varied significantly in different habitats and from year to year. The largest quantity of berries per 1 m2 in absolute numbers and in ratio with the number of florets formed in Vaccinioso-myrtillosa habitat. The yield can be forecasted by counting flower buds formed in autumn, by counting florets in spring and by estimation of formed immature berries. The presented nomogram allows to forecast the length of periods between phenological phases in terms of average several years’ temperature of those periods.
Keywords: lingonberry, habitat, yield forecast, phenological nomogram
This paper continues publication of the conspectus of alien plant species recorded in Lithuania. The Malvaceae family in Lithuania is represented by 12 species, Cucurbitaceae by 5, Euphorbiaceae by 4, Resedaceae by 2, each Cannabaceae, Moraceae, and Tiliaceae by 1 alien plant species. Data on the first record, distribution, habitats, level of naturalization, means of immigration and biology (time of flowering, fructification and reproduction) of each species are presented. Thirteen alien species described here are naturalized and 13 are casuals. Distribution of 5 species is mapped.
Keywords: alien plant species, conspectus, Cannabaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Resedaceae, Tiliaceae, distribution, naturalization, reproduction, Lithuania.
Thymus pulegioides L. (Lamiaceae) is a valuable medicinal plant of Lithuanian indigenous flora. The objective of this work was to characterize intraspecific diversity and habitats of the species. 17 phytocenoses with Thymus pulegioides were described. T. pulegioides was found in 5 associations of Molinio-Arrhenatheretea elatioris and in 2 associations of Festuco-Brometea erectis classes of grasslands, as well as in anthropogenic and not formed associations, such as gravel-sand pits, roadsides, and some grasslands. T. pulegioides was mostly found in Festucetum pratensis association. T. pulegioides is a light-demanding plant – it grows under the illumination of 70–100 %. The plant does not require a rich soil and is indifferent to the soil acidity (pH 4.9–7.6). T. pulegioides likes sunny slopes of southern and eastern aspect. 8 varieties of T. pulegioides were found in the described habitats. The var. conglomeratus was the most frequent.
Keywords: Thymus pulegioides, habitat, plant associations, intraspecific diversity, variety.
Results of the investigations on phenology and biological productivity of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (Asteraceae) cultivated in Kaunas Botanical Garden are presented. This plant has been cultivated in gardens since 1960. Investigations were conducted in 1991–1997. The highest biological productivity of E. purpurea was revealed during fouth and fifth year of plant life (respectively 464.1 and 507.2 g), whereas the lowest productivity was during the first year – 13.6 g. The suitability of E. purpurea raw material for medicinal purposes is discussed. The raw material prepared from plants cultivated in Lithuania fits the requirements of quality.
Keywords: Echinacea purpurea, phenology, biological productivity.
During 1988–1997 in two permanent sites – Vai?nori?ke (Eastern Lithuania, Aukstaitija National Park) and Juodkrante (Western Lithuania, Curonian Spit National Park) – on 70 logs of five most common Lithuanian tree species – birch, aspen, black alder, pine and spruce (35 logs in every site, 7 logs of every species) 105 fungi species and 6 species of Myxomycetes were identified. Among them there were 81 species of Basidiomycetes, 19 of Ascomycetes and 5 belonging to Deuteromycetes. Tree logs were laid out in the sites following the same pattern, immediately after cutting. 11 birch logs, 7 aspen logs, 5 black alder logs, 7 pine logs, and 5 spruce logs (out of forteen of each tree species) were inhabited by 30 fungi species. No significant difference between appearance of the same species was notified in both sites. Attempt to distinguish succession phases was made according to the time of species appearance on the logs.
Keywords: fungi, dead timber, the order of appearance, succession, Lithuania.
The paper presents data on Coelomycetes species collected in eastern Lithuania. Of more than 200 species identified in the investigation area 93 were new or relatively rare, 52 species were recorded for the first time in Lithuania. Most of them were found only once, eight species appeared to be common.
Keywords: Coelomycetes, host plants, distribution, Lithuania.
Six species of operculate discomycetes (Caloscypha fulgens (Pers.) Boud., Helvella albella Quél., Peziza ampliata Pers., Peziza celtica (Boud.) M. M. Moser, P. gerardii Cooke, Scutellinia kerguelensis (Berk.) O. Kuntze) and two species of inoperculate discomycetes (Cenangium accum Cooke et Peck, Ciboria coryli (Schellenb.) Whetzel) collected in various parts of Lithuania are new to the country.
Keywords: new records of discomycetes, Lithuania.
In Lithuania the genus Diachea Fr. is represented by two species. Data on distribution and habitats of Diachea leucopodia and D. subsessilis in Lithuania are discussed. D. subsessilis is reported for the first time in the country.
Keywords: Diachea leucopodia, Diachea subsessilis, myxomycetes, Lithuania.
The paper contains new information about Valerianella locusta (L.) Latter. (Valerianaceae) in Lithuania. Since 1885 only one locality of the species was known in Klaipėda. In 1996–1997 five new localities of V. locusta in the Curonian Spit on the coast of the Curonian Lagoon were ascertained. After detailed investigations the specimens were characterized as V. locusta var. locusta. The plants are spread in coastal communities of a successive stage and are attached to specific environmental conditions.
Keywords: Valerianella locusta, morphology, phytocenoses, Lithuania.