This paper continues publication of the conspectus of alien plant species recorded in Lithuania. The Fabaceae family in Lithuania is represented by 24 alien species. Data on the firs record, distribution, habitats, level of naturalization, means of immigration and biology (time of flowering, fructification and reproduction) of each species are presented. 10 here described alien species are naturalized, 13 are casuals, and naturalization level of 1 species is uncertain. Distribution on of 3 species is mapped. Seven species (Astragalus cicer, Genista tinctoria, Lathyrus sativus, Medicago romanica, Ononis sniposa, Vicia tetrasperma, and Vicia villosa ) are excluded from the list of alien plant species.
Keywords: alien plant species, conspectus, Fabaceae, distribution, naturalization, reproduction, Lithuania.
Medicinal and Aromatic plant (MAP) working group is one of the crop- specific working groups within the framework of National Plant Genetic Resource conservation programme. It involves 4 Lithuanian institutions working on MAP researches. The active conservation of MAP includes in in situ and ex situ methods. The biological peculiarities of species and their resources of raw material determine the methods of their conservation. Protection of threatened and endangered plants encompasses both methods of conservation. Widespread commercially important species with high phenotypic diversity are gathered from wild and protected in field collection. Field collection is the main technique for ex situ conservation on MAP. Now the field entered a new phase as they were expanded by accession from wild that were characterized, evaluated and selected for certain properties.
Keywords: germplasm, medicinal plant, aromatic plant, in situ conservation, ex situ conservation, field collection.
The study contains detailed researches on epiphytes of Populus tremula in in Antalieptė oak forest (Gražutė regional park, Zarasai district, Lithuania). Upper and lower parts, southern and northern exposition of trees were examined. 62 phrorophytes were examined, 43 taxa of epiphytic lichens, 28 taxa of epiphytic mosses and 4 taxa algae were found on them. Dominant epiphytic lichen species were Plyctis argena, Lecanora argentata, dominant bryophyte species were Radula complanata, Hypnum cupressiforme, and Plagiommnium cuspidatum. Pachyphiale fagicola was found first time in Lithuania.
Keywords: lichens, bryophytes, algae, epiphytes, Populus tremula, regional park, Lithuania.
Result of investigation on lichens and allied fungi in Dzūkija National Park (Lithuania) are presented in the article. In total 236 taxa were registered, 27 of them being new to Lithuania: Anisomeridium nyssaegenum, Apicilia laevata, Bacidia delicata, B. inundata, Biatoropsis usnearum, Chaenotheca brachypoda, Clypeococum hypocenomycis, Diploschistes muscorum, Epicladonia sandstedei, Evernia mesomorpha, Hypocenomyce caradocensis, Lempholemma chalazanum, lepraria neglecta, Lichenoconium erodens, L. lecanorae, L. xanthoria, Ochrolechia arborea, Polycoccum microstiticum, Rhizocarpum distinctum, Staurothele ambrosiana, Stgmidium congestum, Syzygospora bachmannii, Thelomma ocellatum, Verrucaria aquatilis, V. xyloxena, Xanthoriicola physciae. One lichens species included in the present Red Data Book of Lithuania was found during the study Evernia divaricata and the list of 14 species is proposed to be included into a new edition of the book: Flavopermelia caperate, Evernia mesomorpha, Hypotrahyna revolute, Chaenotheca brachypoda, Peltigera lepidophora, Diploschistes muscorus, Rhizocarpon grande, R. distinctum, Lecidea lithophila, Diploschistes scruposus, Bryoria implexa, B. nadvornikiana, B. subcana, Steriocaulon incrustatum.
Keywords: lichens, lihenicolous fungi, resinicolous fungi, National parks, Lithuania.
Mycromycetes are not the main wood destroyers, but they are the initiators of this process and are present during all wood decaying stages. 73 species belonging to 4 classes 6 orders and 10 families from decaying wood samples were isolated and indentified. Species which are supposed to develop in the early stages of wood decay and well-known wood destroyers, such as: Chaetomium sp., Paecilomyces puntonii, Trichoderma harzianum and others were detected. The interspecific relation studies of two fungal associations were carried through. A favorable pairing of Aspergillus sp. 2-2 strain and Trichoderma harzianum 2-1 that, thanks to their enzymatic activity and interspecific relation, could function successfully on decaying wood was detected.
Keywords: fungi, wood, species interaction, enzymatic activity.
The investigations revealed that the important pea-nuts, maize corn for animal feed and barley malt were intensely contaminated with propagules of various species of microorganisms. Some of the isolated and identified micromycetes species possessed the ability to synthesize actively toxic materials and release them into the surrounding. The following species can be regarded as potential destroyers of food and animal feed and producers of toxins: Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, Penicillium expansum, P. spinulosm, P. viridicatum, P. palitans, Eurotium amstelodami, Rhizopus stolonifer. Due to these toxins grain loses its worth and cannot be used for food or animal feed. The building here the grain is stored and processed must be clean, ell ventilated, periodically inspected and disinfected.
Keywords: fungi, contamination, food, animal feed, toxins.
Since 1994 the Vokė Branch of Lithuanian institute of Agricuklture has carried out calcareous, organic, and siliceous sapropel tests on soddy-podzolic sandy loam soil. Various rates of dry sapropel together with organic fertilizers on the background of minimum rates of mineral NPK fertilizing or without it were applied. The largest amount of fungi was obtained in soil fertilized with organic and siliceous sapropel. Bacteria were spread widely in soil fertilized with organic and Streptomyces in soil fertilized with calcareous sapropel. The effect of manure on the amount of these microorganisms was positive in soil fertilized with siliceous sapropel. The action calcareous and organic sapropels were similar to the action of manure.
Keywords: sapropel, microorganisms, soil, fertilizers.
The most southern district of the coastal part of Lithuania is defined by complicated geomorphologic and edaphic condition that determinate the diversity of habitats, rich flora and vegetation. During the botanical investigations carried out in 1997-1998 several protected plant species were found in Šilutė district. Characteristic of habitats, state of population Arctium nemorosum, Carex brizoides, Dactylorhyza longifolia, Dactylorhyza maculata, Fragaria moschata, Lunaria rediviva, Orchis morio, Pedicularis sylvatica, Peplis portula are described.
Keywords: rare species, protected species, Lithuania.
Until 1994 only one species of the genus Asplenium was known in Lithuania. Single locality of Asplenium trichomanes L. was in Akmenė district. Three new locality of this species were revealed in Traupis (Anykščiai district) in 1994, Saldutiškis (Utena district) in 1995, and in Daujėnai (Pasvalys district) in 1997. New for Lithuania species Asplenium ruta-muraria was found in Svėdasai (Anykščiai district) and Asplenium viride was found in Rokiškis district in 1997. This species has never been found in the Baltic region. All species of the Aspleniaceae family in Lithuania occur in similar places, in the cracs of old stone cemetery walls.
Keywords: Asplenium trichomanes, A ruta-muraria, A viride, habitats, distribution, Lithuania.
The areal border of Carpinus betulus crosses the territory of Lithuania. Temperature is the main climatic factor limiting the distribution of this species. In 1996 a new locality of Carpinus betulus was found behind of areal border in Vilnius district. This community belongs to the association Tilio-Carpinetum betuli Traczyk 1962 of the broad leaved forest (Cl. Querco-Fagatea Br.-Bl. et Vlieger in Vlieger 1937). The abundance and role of Carpinus betulus in these phytocenosis are described. The vertical structure and floristic composition of these communities are presented.
Keywords: Carpinus betulus, areal border, forests, communities, Lithuania.
Two lichens species – Dimelaena oreina and Lecidea plana are reported in Lithuania. Both These mountain species ere thought to be accidental immigrants brought along with the substrate.
Keywords: lichens, Dimelaena oreina, Lecidea plana, Lithuania.