Botanica Lithuanica, Volume 9, Number 2

2003 m.

In total 68 species of lichens and allied fungi are reported. Eight species of lichens – Arthonia arthonioides, Caloplaca lucifuga, Lecanora thysanophora, Micarea hedlundii, Micarea nigella, Rinodina efflorescens, Sclerophora coniophaea, Thelocarpon intermediellum, 1 species of non-lichenized saprobic fungi – Thelocarpon lichenicola, and 2 species of lichenicolous fungi – Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa, Roselliniella cladoniae are reported here for the first time in Lithuania.

Keywords: lichens, lichenicolous fungi, Lithuania.

The mycological properties of cultural layers excavated from medieval Slavonic settlements (IX–XIV A. D.) have been examined. The mycobiota of cultural layers differs from the surrounding soils in the increasing share of spores in fungal biomass, the highest microfungal species diversity, their composition, and the increased frequency of Penicillium species, which are able to grow at elevated temperature (37 °C). These mycological characteristics of the cultural layers were found to be similar to those of modern urban soils. The possibility to use mycological characteristics as some form of “soil mycological memory” of ancient human impact is discussed.

Keywords: microfungi, soil, cultural layers, species diversity, bioindicators.

The growth of fruit bodies of Cantharellus cibarius Fr. was studied during 1998–2002. The influence of air temperature, relative air humidity, and precipitation on the quantity and biomass of C. cibarius fruit bodies was investigated. Of all meteorological factors observed during the investigation time, relative air humidity, amount of precipitation and its regularity were most important for the growth of C. cibarius fruit bodies.

Keywords: Cantharellus cibarius, fruit bodies, biomass, air temperature, precipitation.

Results of the preliminary studies on the Cladonia chlorophaea group in northern Poland are presented. Formerly only six taxa were recorded, five taxa have been confirmed and one (C. pocillum) is excluded. Currently there are nine taxa: C. chlorophaea, C. cryptochlorophaea, C. fimbriata, C. grayi, C. humilis var. humilis and var. bourgeanica, C. merochlorophaea, C. novochlorophaea, and C. pyxidata. The majority of taxa are widely distributed in inland as well as in coastal areas. Still, C. cryptochlorophaea is known only from coastal sites, except one inland locality. C. humilis var. humilis occurs only in the western part of the coastal northern Poland, whereas var. bourgeanica is known only from two inland localities. However, these taxa are known from few specimens only. Habitat requirements are also briefly noted.

Keywords: Cladonia chlorophaea group, lichen distribution, lichen ecology, Poland.

Montagnea arenaria (DC.) Zeller is threatened and one of the rarest fungi in Poland, known from only three localities. The habitat and geographical distribution of M. arenaria in Poland is reported.

Keywords: Gasteromycetes, agaricoid fungi, Montagnea arenaria, distribution, Poland.

Eighty species of Hyphomycetes belonging to 52 genera, 4 families of the Hyphomycetales, Tuberculariales, and Stilbellales orders and inhabiting more than 40 species of host plants were revealed in different regions of Turkey. Most of the recorded Hyphomycetes species are phyllotrophs (50 %) and xylotrophs (47.5 %). Majority of identified species are Dematiaceous fungi (88 %). Hyphomycetes revealed their consort relationships with 42 species of higher plants from 26 families. Fungi of 53 species and 38 genera are reported as new to the mycobiota of Turkey.

Keywords: Hyphomycetes, Hyphomycetales, Tuberculariales, Dematiaceous fungi, xylotrophs, phyllotrophs, Turkey.

Coelomycetes (Sphaeropsidales and Melanconiales) of 111 species from 31 genera were recorded on 53 species of higher plants belonging to 29 families. Majority (84.7 %) of fungi belonged to the Sphaeropsidales order. Two trophic groups were discerned: xylotrophes (80 %) and phyllotrophes (20 %). Among them saprobic species were prevalent (76 %). The ratio of the number of host plants and number of fungi was on average 1 : 2.2. The collection included members of holarctic, irradiated to southern hemisphere holarctic, palearctic, euro-caucasian, euro-caucasian-middle asiatic, mediterranean, mediterranean–palearctic, and cosmopolite geographic elements. Coelomycetes of 101 species and 6 genera are reported from Anatolia and European part of Turkey for the first time.

Keywords: Coelomycetes, trophic groups, geographic elements, Turkey.

Growth of Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb.) Hughes strains on plant and artificial materials in contact with water was analysed. After 84 days exposition at 25 °C material samples (35 × 240 mm) were divided into segments (60 mm length): A – the lower segment under the water level, B – directly over the water level, C and D – accordingly over B and C. Mycelium occupation of each segment was separately evaluated. Maximum fungal growth was on the segment B directly contacting with water, on segment A in most cases the lack of growth was observed. Fungal occupation of the segments C and D positively correlated with water capacity of the material. Mycelium occupation of the higher segments was quite weak, though the humidity was 100 %. The rate of growth on artificial materials was different for each tested S. chartarum strain. These differences were not observed when fungi grew on natural materials. The most suitable plant materials were stems and seeds of grain: oats, wheat, couch grass. The growth was weaker on other plant remnants: maple leaves, barberry leaves and branches, rapeseeds, trefoil seeds, St.-Johns wort. In all cases the optimal temperature for growth was 25 °C.

Keywords: Stachybotrys, collonisation, cellulose, building materials, plant materials.

As a result of the research, morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties of yeasts in quark, sweetened creamed quark, cheese, and in the sources of their contamination (equipment, air), were revised. Yeasts of 16 species were identified. They included the Candida Berkhout, Debaryomyces Lodder et Kreger van Rij, Kluyveromyces van der Walt, Pichia (Hansen) Kurtzman, Rhodotorula Harrison, Saccharomyces Meyen, Trichosporon Behrend, and Torulaspora Lindner genera. One species of the yeast-like fungi ? Geotrichum candidum Link : Fries ? was identified. To Ascomycotina 83 % of the species were assigned, 17 % ? to Deuteromycotina subdivisions.

Keywords: yeasts, species, milk products, isolate, identification.

The investigations on ornamental pot-plants of 53 taxa belonging to 38 species, 23 genera, and 8 families were carried out in 1996–2001. The rhizosphere of these plants was investigated, and the microbiological analysis on leaf samples of injured plants was performed. Eight species of the Pythium Pringsh. fungi were isolated; 6 of them were detected for the first time in Lithuania.

Keywords: pot-plants, rhizosphere, plant pathogens, Pythium.

Changes in micromycete species composition and their frequency depending on the condition of the Agavaceae family pot-plants were investigated in 1996–2001. Micromycetes of 6 genera dominated in the rhizosphere zone of plants that had been brought from abroad recently. The species composition of micromycetes isolated from the rhizosphere of plants kept under unfavourable growth conditions indicated intensive process of change – micromycetes of 11 genera dominated. Meanwhile, in the rhizosphere of plants grown in a greenhouse (for more than 3 years), micromycetes of 12 species belonging to 7 genera prevailed.

Keywords: Agavaceae, growth conditions, micromycetes, prevalence frequency.

The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of Coriandrum sativa, Altheae officinalis, Anethum graveolens, and Origanum vulgaris extracts and Mentha piperita, Eucalyptus occidentalis, Mellisa officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris essential oils on the growth of food spoilage yeast. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using agar diffusion method with eight strains of yeast: Debaryomyces hansenii (Zopf) Lodder et Kreger van Rij, Trichosporon cutaneum (De Beurm.,Gougerot et Vancher) Ota, Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis van der Walt, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex Hansen, Candida parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Torulaspora delbrueckii (Lindner) Lindner, Pichia kluyveri Bedford ex Kudriavzev, and Rhodotorula rubra (Demme) Lodder. The results show that the essential oils exhibit inhibitory effect against all tested yeast, while the effect of extracts is much weaker.

Keywords: antimicrobial effect, yeast, essential oil, extracts.

Vegetable, fruit, and seed samples were taken in the market and storeroom. Aiming to investigate the distribution of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The samples were examined on selective media for gram-negative bacteria. Forty strains were isolated; 32 strains were selected on the basis of morphological similarity of their colonies. Basing on the results of physiological, cytological, and biochemical tests, the strains were ascribed to ten species of the genus Pseudomonas: Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. delafieldii, P. cepacia (Burgholderia cepacia), P. cichori, P. marginalis, P. facilis, P. putida, P. aeruginosa, P. pseudoalcaligenes, and P. straminea.

Keywords: fruit, vegetables, seeds, bacteria, Pseudomonas, species.