This article presents a list of 30 basidiomycete species recorded in the Świętokrzyskie Mountains (Central Poland), which are classified as primeval forest relicts. Species fulfiling such criterion are highly specialised; they are clearly attached to old forests and practically not found beyond them, not found in synathropic habitats. All the listed fungi are very rare or rare in Poland, included into national and/or regional red lists. At present the distribution of primeval forest relicts is concentrated mainly in the largest and best preserved forests of Poland, i.e., in Białowieska, Augustowska, Carpathian, as well as in Świętokrzyska Forests. Świętokrzyska Forest, and particularly its part in Świętokrzyski National Park, is an important refuge of these fungi.
Keywords: macromycetes, primeval forest, refuges, Świętokrzyski National Park, threatened fungi, Poland.
Influence of the basidiomycete Athelia arachnoidea on epiphytic communities was studied in broad-leaved forests in the zone of influence of chemical plant in central Lithuania. Lichen communities in 24 permanent quadrats were observed for four years. During this period the fungus was noted in 10 quadrats and caused significant damage in some of them. A. arachnoidea influenced both species number and cover in the quadrats, though its influence on various species differed both due to type of fungus infection and individual reaction of the lichen species.
Keywords: epiphytic lichens, lichen communities, lichenicolous fungi, Athelia arachnoidea.
The paper presents new records of Lepraria species from Russia. New localities are reported for 10 taxa from the following regions: Kola Peninsula, Karelian Republic, Leningrad Region, and North-Western Caucasus. Lepraria jackii is reported as new to Russia.
Keywords: Lepraria, distribution, Russia.
The second paper on discomycetes of Viešvilė Strict Nature Reserve deals with new data on species diversity and provides descriptions, ecological and taxonomical notes for selected species recorded in the territory. Fourteen species have been additionally listed for the Reserve. Calycellina aff. populina, Cistella aconiti, “Helotium” aff. aureolum, Lachnum charretii, L. aff. coeruleo-album, L. ledi, L. subauratum, and Phialina carpinacea appeared to be new for Lithuania. Four species have been excluded from the list. In total, 138 species of discomycetes are recorded in the Reserve.
Keywords: discomycetes, nature reserves, Lithuania.
Second locus of peptidase (Pep-2) is useful, cheap, and technically quite a simple marker that can be used for comparative analysis of Phytophtora infestans strains and populations. This polymorphic locus is represented by two alleles 100 and 112; all their combinations commonly occur in the field populations. Genetic diversity for Pep-2 locus in the majority of populations is higher than for Pep-1. The use of Pep-2 in the complex with other markers such as mating type and Pep-1 has potential in the investigations of clonal structure of populations, the ways of spreading of the pathogen, and possible sources of infection. The complex of aforementioned features is promising for use in regional and interregional databases on late blight agent. The comparative analysis of mating type, Pep-1 and Pep-2 of Russian and Belorussian populations of P. infestans elucidated that the majority of investigated populations had the genotypes A1, 100/100, 100/100; A2, 100/100, 100/100, and A1, 100/100, 100/112. The genotypes ?2, 100/100, 100/112 and ?1, 100/100, 112/112 were rarer. Other possible P. infestans genotypes were found for a few isolates in different populations or were absent.
Keywords: Phytophftora infestans, late blight, analysis of populations, allozyme structure.
The paper lists 37 species of anamorphic fungi identified on oak (Quercus L.); 32 species are reported as new to the mycobiota of Lithuania: Catenularia cuneiformis, Chalara affinis, C. aurea, C. urceolata, Chloridium botryoideum var. minutum, C. clavaeforme, Dicranidion fragile, Dicyma ampullifera, Endophragmiella fagicola, Gonytrichum chlamydosporium var. chlamydosporium, Haplographium catenatum, Haplariopsis fagicola, Haplotrichum ramosissimum, Heteroconium chaetospira, Ityorhoptrum verruculosum, Kylindria clavata, K. zignaellae, Lobatopedis foliicola, Monodictys castaneae, M. paradoxa, M. putredinis, Periconia minutissima, Phaeostalagmus tennuissimus, Pleurothecium recurvatum, Polyscytalum hareae, Pseudospiropes simplex, Spondylocladiopsis cupulicola, Sporendocladia bactrospora, Sporidesmium dennisii, S. goidanichii, Sympodiella cf. foliicola, Xylohypha ferruginosa. Among them Haplotrichum ramosissimum is recorded for the first time in Europe. Ecological peculiarities of the species, their distribution, host and substrate preferences are discussed. Some rare species are illustrated.
Keywords: anamorphic fungi, diversity, distribution, Quercus, Lithuania.
The research data (1983–1992) on tulip bulb reproduction according to total, generative, forcible and indexed reproduction coefficients were presented. 343 tulip cultivars of all mother bulb sizes (7 fractions; Extra fraction: diameter – 4 cm and more, size – 12.5 cm and more; the diameter of the following fractions – 0.5 cm less; VI fraction: diameter – 1.5 cm and less, size – 4.7 cm and less) were discussed. Furthermore, reference amplitudes and intervals of these coefficients among the cultivars and dependence degree on mother bulb size were reviewed.
Keywords: Tulip, variation, total reproduction, generative reproduction, forcible reproduction, indexed reproduction coefficient, grades of fertility.
Results of investigations on the anatomical structure of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. stem and leaf are presented and discucced. Schisandra chinensis in Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus university is cultivated since 1955 as medicinal plant. The investigated anatomical characteristics are important for identification of Schisandra chinensis raw material and its quality.
Keywords: medicinal plant, plant anatomy, shoot, stem, leaf.
The paper deals with the effect of the photoperiod on the genesis of vegetative organs or flowers in flower stalk epidermal-subepidermal thin layer tissues in vitro, when the leaf, the main acceptor of this ecological factor, is removed. Both vegetative and reproductive organs regenerated in flower stalk explants of photoperiodically long-day Nicotiana alata under long-period day conditions, whereas only vegetative buds and shoots developed in a short day. However, the investigated tissues of N. tabacum with neutral photoperiodic reaction regenerated as vegetative shoots as well as flowers independently of day length. The results first demonstrate the same morphogenetic response to the photoperiod in flower stalk thin layer tissues in vitro as the photoperiodic reaction of an intact plant. Flowers regenerate in tissue cultures having only a certain extent of differentiation and in case of favourable photoperiod.
Keywords: photoperiod, thin layer tissues, tobacco, regeneration, flower, vegetative buds.