Vol 33(1) 2020

2020 m.

Santrauka The gullies in the vicinity of Neple (Podlaska Lowland, eastern Poland) are relatively young and were created due to the land use and climate changes. The aim of the research was to determine the variability of selected alluvial-diluvial fans occurring in the Bug River valley and their age using interdisciplinary methods (e.g. absolute dating, geochemical analyzes, cartographic data). Geological mapping and several drillings (both within the fans, valleys or gullies bottoms and glacial or fluvioglacial plateaus) were done. Historical data dealing with the human economic activity in the region were analyzed. The obtained radiocarbon dating and geochemical features of sediments building the alluvial and diluvial fans proved that these forms are not older than some 500 years. Due to the lateral movement of the Bug River channel only some of the forms are preserved in the area under study. The rest of them disappeared due to the fluvial erosion.

Doi https://doi.org/10.5200/baltica.2020.1.1

Raktažodžiai human impact; trace elements; land use changes; gully erosion; radiocarbon dating

Pilnas tekstas


The paper presents results of experimental investigations of currents in the nearshore region of the south Baltic Sea. The analysis is based on the field data collected near Lubiatowo (Poland) using the measuring equipment which was simultaneously operated both by the Polish and Russian research teams. The venture was aimed at detection of rip currents that are rare and insufficiently explored phenomena in the south Baltic coastal zone. The data include wind velocity and direction, deep-water wave buoy records and currents surveyed by means of drifters. The measurements were carried out in the area whose hydrodynamics, lithodynamics and morphodynamics are typical of the south Baltic sandy coast. It appears that the nearshore water flows are mostly represented by longshore wave-driven currents with mean velocities of 0.22–0.53 m/s, and the maximum velocity of 1.32 m/s. Water circulation patterns resembling rip currents with velocities of up to 0.34 m/s were identified only on one day, when specific wave conditions occurred at the study site. Contrary to strong longshore currents generated by storm waves, rip currents occur under mild or moderate wave conditions, when many beach users are willing to swim in nearshore waters. The present findings can therefore be useful for the improvement of swimmers’ safety in the south Baltic Sea regions.

Doi https://doi.org/10.5200/baltica.2020.1.2

Raktažodžiai Baltic Sea; coastal currents; drifters; waves; wind

Pilnas tekstas

Santrauka The aim of the study is to determine the seasonal variability in the size of dissolved matter supplied to selected kettle ponds located in the glacial areas of northern Poland, using selected physicochemical indicators. The study area consisted of the drainage basin of the Parsęta River and a small catchment of the Borucinka River that flows across the Kaszubskie Lake District in northern Poland. Measurements of pH, electrolytic conductivity, oxygenation, and water temperature were performed in the field. The concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-, NH4+, NO3-, PO43- was measured in the laboratory. Also, the atmospheric precipitation was determined using automatic precipitation stations. Climate conditions served as the primary determinants of seasonal change in the supply of dissolved matter to basins without outlets in the drainage basin. This is especially true of atmospheric precipitation and the effects of vegetation in the contact zone between precipitation and the biosphere. In the case of biogenic substances, one of the main factors was the length of the vegetation season. The main determinant of the hydrochemical state of kettle ponds was land use.

Doi https://doi.org/10.5200/baltica.2020.1.3

Raktažodžiai northern Poland; plateau levels; basins without outlets; seasonal variances; dissolved matter; ions

Pilnas tekstas

Santrauka The work was carried out in the south-eastern part of the Baltic Sea on the meridional section along the Russian–Polish border during 2015–2018 using the CTD-sounding. The suspended particulate matter samples were taken with the use of ultrafiltration of sea water (0.4 micron filters). The research was focused on identifying the temporal and spatial variability of suspended particulate matter distribution after a series of inflows of the North Sea waters in 2014–2016. The vertical structure of the suspended particulate matter distribution in the south-eastern Baltic, both on a seasonal and interannual scale, contains the main features common for all marine basins, namely increased concentrations of SPM at the sea surface and bottom and an intermediate layer of minimum concentrations located at a depth of 50–70 m. Seasonal fluctuations in the SPM concentration are very significant and are mainly due to the seasonal variation of bioproduction in the surface layer of the sea and the flow of rivers. The confirmation of the barrier role of density boundaries (thermocline and halocline) in sedimentation and geochemical processes has not been obtained.

Doi https://doi.org/10.5200/baltica.2020.1.4

Raktažodžiai major Baltic inflows; Gdansk Deep; Gotland Deep; hydrological structure; suspended matter

Pilnas tekstas


The NE European Sand Belt spreads over three Baltic States and consists of dunefields usually lying directly atop former glacial lakes. Some of these dunefields have so far been investigated in terms of their sediment properties and chronology. Nevertheless, there is a limited number of profiles where both glaciolacustrine and aeolian sediments co-occur and thus provide a unique environmental record where wet and dry conditions alternate. In this study, we investigated the Pērtupe profile, eastern Latvia, that represents sediment transition from glaciolacustrine silt to aeolian sand and along with a few known profiles helps to distinguish three sediment units as glaciolacustrine, transitional, and aeolian. This is most likely typical of the sediments of the NE European Sand Belt. A microstudy of sediments revealed that both aeolian and periglacial conditions alternated. However, this seems to be better expressed through prevalence of weathered quartz grains with some fracturing in the transitional unit. Aeolian deposition did take place in drier conditions, but micaceous interlayers argue for occasional watertable-controlled  events.

This study provides one more support regarding a start of aeolian deposition at ca. 11.3 ka in the NE European Sand Belt, which took place instantly after deglaciation rather than after a few-thousand-year hiatus. Enhanced aeolian activity is known from the region at a similar time frame, but mostly as its maximum or termination, meaning that aeolian activity must had been asynchronous.

Doi https://doi.org/10.5200/baltica.2020.1.5

Raktažodžiai quartz grains; scanning electron microscopy; luminescence dating; dunefields; aeolian water-controlled environment

Pilnas tekstas

Santrauka The Baltic Sea is characterized by a restricted exchange of deep waters due to permanent stratification of the water column. The aim of the present study is to investigate the distribution of benthic foraminifera in the south-eastern part of the Baltic Sea in relation to environmental parameters. The distribution of benthic foraminifera was analyzed in 26 surface sediment samples collected in the south-eastern part of the Baltic Sea and in the Bornholm Basin during springtime and wintertime 2016. Foraminiferal diversity in the studied region was extremely low. Agglutinated specimens dominated the assemblages and were represented by small-sized individuals which belong to Psammosphaera, Pseudothurammina, Saccammina, and Reophax genera. Calcareous foraminifera were dominated by Cribroelphidium genus. Micropaleontological data were compared to the environmental parameters characterizing bottom water (temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen content) and substrate conditions (grain size composition and total organic carbon content). Higher foraminiferal concentrations and diversity were found in deeper parts of the study region where fine-grained sediments with a higher total organic carbon content were accumulated under stable hydrographical conditions. Calcareous tests were found only at the stations with elevated salinity, indicating that bottom water salinity is the main factor limiting the distribution of calcareous foraminifera. On the other hand, substrate parameters and hydrodynamic conditions appear to play a major role in the distribution of agglutinated foraminifera.

Doi https://doi.org/10.5200/baltica.2020.1.6

Raktažodžiai North Sea water inflows; grain-size composition; total organic content; Gdansk Basin; agglutinated forami­nifera

Pilnas tekstas

Santrauka Most cities in temperate climate zones, including Tallinn, face the threat of torrential rains and resultant floods, which cause extensive damage to city economies. The main causes of floods are climatic; however, unreasonable building activity and insufficiently developed and maintained drainage systems also contribute to this problem. The percentage of impervious pavement has increased with the consolidation of buildings and road networks. Rainwater drainage is an important issue in a number of different areas of human activity ranging from town planning and environmental protection to building, maintenance and operation of rainwater drainage systems. Hence, to deal with the rainwater drainage issue, it is necessary to develop an integrated and scientifically justified strategy. The present study represents a constituent part of the relevant strategy development process. The authors pay special attention to options for increasing rainwater percolation in different environmental conditions, including geological setting, topography and different soil filtration properties.

Doi https://doi.org/10.5200/baltica.2020.1.7

Raktažodžiai floods; rainwater drainage system; town planning; buried valleys; vulnerability

Pilnas tekstas


North Lithuania was chosen for a study of the “drumlinised” morainic surface produced during the Last Glaciation, typified as well-expressed mega-scale glacial lineations (MGSLs). The goal pursued in the present study was to investigate the morphology and macro- and microfabrics of some large glacial lineations to substantiate their formation mechanism. The geological structure of Quaternary strata of an area and the erosion depression of sub-Quaternary surface suggest favourable conditions for the glacier to rapidly fluctuate into the area during deglaciation of Late Glaciation. Investigations of Pleistocene tills observed in the MSGLs of the area preserved on the eastern and western margins of the study area show that these deposits are formed from the upper part of the Baltija Subformation – Middle Lithuanian till. According to two sets of grain sizes, MSGL tills are often notable for increased values of relative entropy. Therefore, morainic material deposited during the redeposition of the Baltija Subformation till was thoroughly mixed. The data on orientation and inclination of long axes of gravel and pebbles in the tills that form MSGLs, as well as the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of microclast material suggest that the formation of MSGLs may have been influenced by directions of the local glacial stress that are different from the regional direction of glacial motion (about N–S). The change of macro- and microfabric of till confirms the formation of MSGLs during glacier erosion by groove-ploughing from the Baltija Subformation till. This occurred when basal ice carried over clast material to MSGL crests from interridge areas.

Doi https://doi.org/10.5200/baltica.2020.1.8

Raktažodžiai subglacial landform; lithostratigraphic division; Baltija Subformation; anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

Pilnas tekstas

Santrauka Managed aquifer recharge is gaining in importance worldwide. As there is not much information on bank filtration (BF) sites in Eastern Europe, a survey of geohydraulic conditions and post-treatment schemes carried out. Such information will make it possible to assess hydraulic conditions in the region and the commonly required post-treatment. Data were collected from publications, archival documentations, maps as well as through direct communication with administrators of relevant water companies. As a result, a summary of the data from 71 BF or BF/artificial recharge (AR) well fields in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia and Slovenia was prepared. Data on the source of water, location, capacity, aquifer thickness and hydraulic conductivity, and treatment methods were collected. Thirteen of the studied 71 RBF well fields are combined with AR. The most common type of BF in Eastern Europe is riverbank filtration (RBF) with wells located along a river. 56% of the analyzed sites are located along larger rivers such as the Danube, Drava, Nemunas, Neris, Odra, Volga, Warta and the Wisła. The smallest BF site has a discharge capacity of only 38 m3/day, the largest BF site 210,000 m3/day, while the smallest and the largest combined BF/AR site has a discharge capacity of 5,500 m3/day and 150,000 m3/day, respectively. The average values of aquifer thickness and hydraulic conductivity are 21 m and 2.7*10-3 m/s, respectively, at BF sites and 16 m and 5.7*10-4 m/s, respectively, at BF/AR sites. The most common post-treatment steps include aeration-filtration – disinfection, UV, ozone and activated carbon being used at many sites as well. The collected data can prove helpful in designing and modernizing BF sites, comparing and establishing direct contacts with water companies facing similar conditions. The outcome of this study is the built-up BF database for Eastern Europe, which can supplement the Global Inventory of Managed Aquifer Recharge Schemes (IGRAC 2017)

Doi https://doi.org/10.5200/baltica.2020.1.9

Raktažodžiai managed aquifer recharge; artificial recharge; survey; hydraulic conductivity; aquifer thickness; treatment methods

Pilnas tekstas