In this study the morphological and anatomical properties of Salvia cryptantha Montbret et Aucher ex Bentham (Lamiaceae), which is endemic for Turkey, have been investigated. S. cryptantha has a perennial taproot. The stem is erect and quadrangular. The leaves are simple. The inflorescense is verticillate cyme. The corolla is coloured white to pinkish. The seeds are pale brown. The seed size is 3.25 mm in length and 2.75 mm in width. The seeds are spherical in shape. Anatomical features of root, stem, leaf, petiole, calyx and corolla are discussed. We observed that the pith rays were 1–3 rowed in the cross-sections of the stem. This feature may be used as a distinguishing character of the species because the number of rays shows variation in different species.
Keywords: anatomy, Lamiaceae, morphology, Salvia.
Studies on some fern species have revealed their suitability for use in fortifying livestock and fish feeds to enhance food production. The intake of Nephrolepis biserrata (Swartz) Schott by ruminants in the tropics has been reported. Thus, its nutrient compositions were determined in this study. Proximate analysis showed 6.13 % protein, 0.87 % crude fiber, 0.33 % fat, 1.88 % ash, 80 % moisture, 10.87 % carbohydrate, 20 g/100 g total solid and 4.79 mg/100 g ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The leaflet is a rich source of mineral elements (mg/100 g dry matter): chromium 6.30±0.01, iron 1182.00±0.49, manganese 100.80±0.02, copper 158.75±0.38, cobalt 0.45±0.02, cadmium 0.02±0.03, lead 68.10±0.17, magnesium 338.70±0.01, calcium 223.20±0.06, mercury 27.59±0.11, nickel 9.00±0.03, potassium 500.00±0.04 and sodium 250.00±0.05. Zinc, selenium and arsenium were not detected. Analysis of the toxicants also showed oxalate and hydrogen cyanide to be 0.575 mg/100 g and 2.16 mg/100 g respectively. The results are discussed in terms of the nutritive value as well as the public health implication of having N. biserrata as part of the ruminant diet.
Keywords: elemental analysis, fossils, gametophytes, herbivores, Nephrolepis, proximate compo-sition, pteridophyte, toxicants.
A checklist of Pittosporaceae on the Indian subcontinent was prepared on the basis of observations of different taxa belonging to this family in wild habitats, examination of herbarium specimens and reviews of taxonomic literature. On the Indian subcontinent (comprising Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and India), the Pittosporaceae family is represented poorly, i.e. by 16 species (6.4 % of global number of species). The cumulative rate of phytoendemism of Pittosporaceae on the Indian subcontinent was determined. Eight species (50 %) are endemics in the analysed area, i.e. 5 species (31.25 %) are narrow range endemics and 3 species (18.75 %) are broad range endemics. For better understanding of the species dynamics of Pittosporaceae on the Indian subcontinent, the present status of phytoendemism was compared to the data of previous investigations performed in the 19th century. On the basis of phytogeographical analysis and fossil evidences of Pittosporaceae on the Indian subcontinent, endemics were divided into holoendemics and island endemics.
Keywords: Pittosporaceae, distribution, endemism, phytogeography, Indian subcontinent.
The experiment of lingonberry growing in soil covered with black plastic foil was carried out in 2000–2004 in the Field Experimental Station of the Institute of Botany. The research showed that in 5 years mature lingonberry planst formed. Already on the 3rd or 4th years of growing the lingonberry began to yield; and in field conditions lingonberry yield exceeded that of natural habitats by 5 times. On the 4th year of growing the plants began to form rhizome, and from the leafy rhizome shoots new shrubs grew. The cover of soil surface with plastic foil, like the mulching, acted positively on growth and yielding of lingonberry. When the soil surface is covered with plastic foil, the weeds may grow only in small areas of open soil near the planted lingonberry shrubs, and weed control is much easier.
Keywords: lingonberry, cultivation, soil covering, plastic foil.
In this publication eight cyanobacteria species new to Lithuania are described: Chamaesiphon amethystinus, C. incrustans, Hydrococcus rivularis, Heteroleibleinia kossinskajae, Microcoleus subtorulosus, Phormidium retzii, Rivularia dura, and Cylindrospermum michailovskoense. All species were found in the benthos of streams. Morphological descriptions, ecology, illustrations and world distribution data of the species are presented.
Keywords: cyanobacteria, streams, benthos, Lithuania.
The main natural source of organic carbon and nutrients into freshwater ecosystems are leaves which have fallen into the water. During the degradation process of leaf litter, many organic and inorganic substances are released, and, under certain conditions, they may aggregate to from humic substances. During the present investigation leaf litter degradation extracts (“new born” humic substances) from Fagus sylvatica (beech) and Quercus robur (oak) were produced, recreating natural leaf decomposition. The impact of leaf litter breakdown products on the antioxidative system and the intracellular hydrogen peroxide content of Nitellopsis obtusa was studied. This was done via Nitellopsis obtusa cells exposure for 2 h to leaf litter degradation extracts during up to a 30 day period. Significant (P<0.05) elevation of soluble glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activity in N. obtusa treated with both extracts from Fagus sylvatica (beech) and Quercus robur (oak) were observed, while there were no statistically significant differences in intracellular hydrogen peroxide content and catalase activity. Results indicate that newly created humic substances (leaf litter degradation extracts) may be an important environmental factor affecting aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems.
Keywords: Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, dissolved organic carbon, intracellular hydrogen peroxide.
A Barley yellow dwarf virus was detected in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing symptoms of yellowing and reddening of leaves, leaf chlorosis and general plant stunting. Diseased plants were collected at the Plant Breeding Centre of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in the breeding-experimental fields (Kėdainiai region) and wheat fields of Kaunas region. The electron microscopy investigation of leaf extracts revealed the presence of particles measuring 25 nm in diameter (negatively stained). The presence of Barley yellow dwarf virus in diseased wheat was demonstrated using double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Keywords: Cereal crops, BYDV, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR.